The following roster of pre-professional studies indicates how the liberal arts can fulfill the general as well as the specialized objectives of St. Olaf students. Recommendations are based on the typical pre-professional requirements currently existing in universities and professional schools.
Many other occupations beyond those in this roster may be pursued with a liberal arts background, of course. To learn more about them, call or visit the campus contact persons listed in areas that seem similar.
Subjects grouped under the headings “Strongly Recommended” are required by many institutions while those under “Recommended” are important but not necessarily required. Because of their diverse nature, many professions such as business and management, law, and public policy defy course-specific recommendations for undergraduates. For example, as many psychology as economics majors in the United States enter business careers each year through corporate training programs. In those instances, recommendations should be considered suggestive, not directive. Opposite examples are nursing and social work, which have prescribed curriculums required for licensure examinations.
Students are encouraged to work closely with faculty, pre-professional advisors, department chairs, and the Piper Center for Vocation and Career during and after their time at St. Olaf.
Campus contact person: Richard Goedde, Economics Department and Director of Management Studies Program
Students planning to sit for the CPA examination upon graduation should major in economics or mathematics and take elective courses in accounting and finance. New members of the American Institute of CPAs are required to earn one year of college credit beyond the bachelor’s degree. Students are strongly advised to check the regulations for licensure in the state where they intend to practice.
Strongly recommended: Management Studies 225, 237, 250, 251, 252, 281, and 380; Mathematics 126
Recommended: Courses in statistics and computer science
Campus contact persons: Department of Art and Art History, Steve Edwins and Wendell Arneson
Career paths in architecture include graduate professional programs toward becoming a licensed architect, teaching architecture and/or architectural history, and involvement in many fields of design, from environmental work, urban design, and landscape architecture, to interior and furnishings design. A studio art major and courses in art and architectural history are recommended. Because architecture requires a comprehensive understanding of culture, it is important to have a background in municipal organization, literature, writing and presenting ideas, aesthetics, logical and ethical problem solving, collaborative work and research, and environmental sustainability, as well as in mathematics and physics.
Strongly recommended: A major in the visual arts with an emphasis in sculpture, painting, architectural drawing, and digital media (Art 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 228, and 239); a strong background in art history (Art 150, 251, 252, 262, 263 and 271); and strong background in mathematics (Calculus I and II and Physics 124 and 125). An option exists for a customized major via the Center for Integrated Studies.
Recommended: Courses in American and European history, American and/or urban studies, literature (especially with advanced writing components), and philosophy; social science courses; and at least one ORC-designated course
Campus contact person: Richard Goedde, Economics Department and Director of Management Studies Program
Students planning to enter the business world immediately upon graduation and seek a career in accounting, finance, management, or marketing should major in economics and consider an area of emphasis, or they should consider a management studies concentration combined with a major other than economics.
Strongly recommended: Management Studies 225, 237, 250, 251, 252, 256, 257, 383; Psychology 125
Recommended: Management Studies 281; Psychology 250; Theater 120
The best Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programs do not require a specific undergraduate curriculum. They seek people with strong skills in analysis, communication and leadership. Typically students entering an MBA program will have two or more years of work experience.
Campus contact person: Richard Brown, Computer Science
Computer science remains at the heart of preparation for careers or graduate study in computer engineering (which focuses on hardware design) and software engineering, since computer science provides a conceptual foundation for computing disciplines. The emphasis on “hands-on” learning techniques, professionalism, and computing ethics and on the development of communication and leadership skills in St. Olaf’s computer science major program give a further preparatory boost to future engineers. The following courses are particularly recommended.
Recommended for computer engineering: Computer Science 251/252; Computer Science 231, 241, 253, 263, 273; Physics 246; statistics (e.g., Statistics 212). Also consider Computer Science 284, 300.
Recommended for software engineering: Computer Science 125 or 251/252; Computer Science 231, 241, 253, 263, 273, 284, 300; statistics (e.g., Statistics 212). Also consider Computer Science 276.
Campus contact person: David Dahl, Physics Department
Most students choose to complete a B.A. degree at St. Olaf before beginning work on an M.S.E. degree at the school of their choice, an option which typically takes five and one-half to six years. A cooperative program exists that enables a student to receive a B.A. degree from St. Olaf and a B.S. degree in engineering from either Washington University in St. Louis, Mo., or the University of Minnesota, in a five-year program. Consult the PHYSICS listing in the catalog for further information.
Strongly recommended for civil, electrical and mechanical engineering: Major in physics
Strongly recommended for chemical engineering: Major in chemistry
Campus contact person: Richard Brown, Computer Science
St. Olaf’s computer science major provides a deep foundation for applied computing fields since the concepts of computer science provide insights into all forms of computing and because St. Olaf’s program emphasizes “hands-on” experience to build up valuable technical skills and strong liberal arts interpersonal skills. The following courses are particularly recommended.
Recommended for information technology: Computer Science 251/252; Computer Science 263, 273, 276, 284, 300, 350; economics and management studies courses related to business and accounting; internships in industry, and/or on campus with the Office of Informational and Instructional Technologies (IIT).
Recommended for information systems: Computer Science 263, 284, 300, 350; economics and management studies courses related to business and accounting
Campus contact person: , English Department
Strongly recommended: English 289 (Journalistic Writing)
Recommended: Other writing courses such as English 150, 288, 291, 293, 373; course work in American and modern world history, contemporary sociology/anthropology, ethics, computer science, economics, political science; mass media; Art 205 (photography).
Campus contact person: Doug Casson, Political Science Department, and Kirsten Cahoon, Center for Vocation and Career
Law schools search for well-rounded individuals who have strong skills in analytical thinking and expression. For this reason there is no set pre-law curriculum at St. Olaf and those interested in attending law school are advised to pursue a program that strengthens their abilities in writing, reading, speaking, and analysis. Students desiring more information should consult with members of the Pre-law Advisory Committee.
Campus contact persons: Chair of the Art Department; chair of the Theater Department; chair of the Dance Department; chair of the Music Department
Strongly recommended: A comprehensive major in art, dance, music, or theater. Teaching majors are offered, and the individual department chairs should be consulted for the specific departmental requirements. The Bachelor of Music degree is a professional degree for preparation in music performance, theory-composition, church music, or music education. For specific information about requirements for the Bachelor of Music degree, refer to MUSIC in the catalog course listings.
Recommended: Well-rounded background in the liberal arts, particularly the humanities.
Chair, Health Professions Committee (HPC), 2013-14: Kevin Crisp (Biology)
Health Professions Committee, 2013-14: Beth Abdella (Chemistry); Diane Angell (Biology); Nicole Beckmann (Nursing); Jay Demas (Biology and Physics); Dipa Kalyani (Chemistry); M. Minda Oriña (Psychology); Wes Pearson (Chemistry); David Van Wylen (Biology); Katie Ziegler-Graham (Statistics); Karen Renneke (Administrative Assistant)
Pre-health studies are a roadmap through the liberal arts that begins with your admission to college, and ends with your admission to a health professional school (such as a medical school). At St. Olaf College, this route intersects with our commitment (as stated in the Mission Statement) to an education that fosters critical thinking, heightens moral sensitivity, promotes lives of unselfish service to others and challenges you to become responsible, knowledgeable citizens of the world. Pre-health studies are supported by the dedication and efforts of the faculty of the Health Professions Committee and the staff of The Piper Center for Vocation and Career.
OVERVIEW OF PRE-HEALTH STUDIES
The following information is intended for St. Olaf students who are in the process of deciding what path their future career will take in the health professions. There are many health careers in addition to human and veterinary medicine, dentistry and nursing. Some of these areas are listed below, along with the HPC member with advising expertise in that area:
|Chiropractic Practioner||Beth Abdella|
|Genetic Counseling||Jay Demas|
|Health Administration||Ashley Hodgson|
|Medical Illustration||Diane Angell|
|Medical/Clinical Technician||Diane Angell|
|Mental Health||Donna McMillan|
|Naturopathic Practioner||Beth Abdella|
|Nurse Practioner||Nicole Beckmann|
|Occupational Therapy||Cindy Book|
|Physical Therapy||Cindy Book|
|Public Health||Kathryn Zeigler-Graham|
|Veterinary Medicine||Henry Kermott|
Preparing for any health science profession requires careful planning, as prerequisites vary by field and even by school or program. More information concerning professional preparation for these areas can be found on the Piper Center Website. For specific details about the nursing program, please see the Nursing Major catalog page. Allopathic (MD) and osteopathic (DO) medicine, dentistry, physician's assistant (PA) training and podiatry will be the focus of the information that follows.
Students should seek advise from their academic advisor, the Piper Center staff, and the HPC as they plan and prepare for health science professions.
PREREQUISITES FOR PRE-MEDICAL, PRE-DENTAL, PRE-PHYSICIAN'S ASSISTANT AND PRE-PODIATRY STUDENTS
Each medical school (whether MD or DO), dental school and physician's assistant program differs somewhat in their exact list of courses required for admission. However, St. Olaf's general education curriculum provides you with most of the non-science prerequisites typical of these programs. The following "required" courses are recommended for all students planning on entering medical schools (either MD or DO) or dental schools.
- Math 120: Calculus
- 2 semesters of general biology (typically Biology 150 and Biology 227)
- Chemistry 125 and Chemistry 126 (or Chemistry/Biology 125 and Chemistry/Biology 126)
- Math 120 is a prerequisite for Chemistry 126 and Chemistry/Biology 126
- Chemistry 247 and Chemistry 248: Organic Chemistry
- Chemistry 379: Biochemistry (organic chemistry is a prerequisite)
- Physics 124 and Physics 125
Pre-medical students planning on taking the MCAT in 2015 or later years are also recommended to take:
- Psychology 125
- A sociology course (121 is open to first-year students only)
- A statistics course (typically Statistics 212)
Pre-medical students should note that there is much more to being a competitive candidate for medical school than course planning. A competitive candidate to medical school might have a GPA of greater than 3.5, an MCAT score of greater than 30, significant experience with patients in a medical setting, and long-term volunteer experience (especially working with the underserved).
Pre-dental students should note that many dental schools recommend that students take a semester of introductory psychology, a semester of statistics and coursework in studio art in addition to the required natural science and mathematics coursework above.
Prererequisites for podiatry programs are similar to those for medical school, and some podiatry schools may accept the MCAT, DAT or GRE. A student who will use the MCAT when applying to podiatry school should take courses in psychology, sociology and statistics in addition to the required natural science and mathematics courses recommended for pre-medical students. Note, however, that psychology, sociology and statistics are not typically required for admission to podiatry programs.
Prerequisites for Physician's Assistant programs are similar, but students should note that these programs may not require organic chemistry, biochemistry or physics; however, these students are also recommended to take:
- Psychology 125 (introductory) and Psychology 241 (developmental psychology)
- Medical terminology (typically as Biology 291: Medical Terminology)
- A course emphasizing speech and communication
- Biology 143 and Biology 243 (2 sem sequence of Human Anatomy and Physiology)
- A statistics course
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GRADUATE STUDY
Health Professionals graduate schools (such as medical schools) are looking for well-rounded individuals who are interested in a wide variety of areas and have demonstrated their interest in both medicine and people. Students should take advantage of the many opportunities to obtain patient contact and observe practitioners at work in their field of expertise. Medically-related experience is essential to successful application to many health profession programs; medical schools strongly recommend potential applicants obtain medically related work or other contact with patients, and physician assistant programs often require as many as 1500-2000 hours of work with patients before the student submits an application. The Piper Center's coaches and peer advisors can assist students in arranging internships with physicians in their hometown, with alumni or with healthcare professionals in the Twin Cities. Internships during the interim and summer of the students' sophomore or junior year work well. Students may also shadow healthcare professionals during the summer, or work in a hospital, clinic or nursing home (e.g., as a CNA); note that formal registration for credit is not required.
Students should also maintain a high level of involvement in extra-curricular activities. They should select and involve themselves in activities of genuine interest. Extensive involvement in a few activities ranging from music to athletics to clubs (such as the pre-medical or pre-dental club) can demonstrate and develop valued traits such as dedication, commitment, leadership, perseverance and professionalism.
Health professions schools are also interested in students who have demonstrated compassion and empathy through volunteer activities. Examples of volunteer activity include hospice programs, home health aid, crisis-line counseling, working with physically disabled or developmentally delayed individuals, working with abuse victims or with trouble youth. Volunteering, like shadowing and other forms of health care exposure, will enhance the student's goal orientation and assist them in focusing on their goals. Long periods of service involvement are preferred to brief stints in many activities.
ADDITIONAL COURSES OF INTEREST
This course explores the sources, chemical composition, and metabolic behavior of nutrients. Nutritional requirements for a balanced diet are examined as well as the consequences of excesses and deficiencies. Students use nutrition tools and guidelines to make sound food choices, learn how to read food labels, and consider factors affecting food consumption. Class activities increase students' awareness of a healthy diet, help students evaluate nutrition behaviors, and facilitate a nutritionally sound lifestyle. Prerequisite: High school biology and chemistry strongly recommended. Offered annually during Interim and in the spring semester except in 2013-14. Counts towards exercise science major and biomedical studies concentration.
Biology 143 Human Anatomy and Physiology: Cells and Tissues
The study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body is found on a thorough understanding of the structure and function of cells and tissues. Students attend lectures plus one 3-hour lab per week. Nursing and exercise science majors may pre-register for this course. This course may not be taken after completion of Chemistry/Biology 127 or Biology 227, either of which serve as a prerequisite for Biology 243 Human Anatomy and Physiology: Organ Systems. Offered in the fall semester.
Microbiology examines the morphology, composition, metabolism, and genetics of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria and viruses. Students examine the dynamic impact of microbes on humans, the immune response, and the role of microbes in the environment. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and Chemistry 121 or 125, or Chemistry/Biology 125-127. Offered annually.
Students journey toward greater understanding of the human body through an integrated study of the structure of the body (anatomy) and how organs such as the brain, heart, and kidney perform their remarkable functions (physiology). The course is designed primarily for students intending careers in the health sciences. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: Biology 125, or Chemistry/Biology 125-127. Offered annually. Counts towards exercise science major and neuroscience concentration.
Biology 245 Economics of Health Care
The health care sector in the U.S. is undergoing rapid change which affects patients, providers and payers. Managed care and managed competition are restructuring the delivery of health care services and reducing costs, while frustrating physicians and patients. The course examines the economic factors leading to the changes, current issues and controversies and federal health policies. Students from nursing, pre-med and the sciences are encouraged to enroll. Prerequisites: one of Economics 110-122 or consent of instructor. Offered annually.
This course clarifies central concepts and distinctions developed in the literature of moral philosophy and applications of those concepts and distinctions to concrete moral problems that arise in the practice of medicine. Issues may include euthanasia, abortion, medical paternalism, allocation of scarce medical resources, culturally sensitive medical care, pandemics, and conflicts of loyalty in managed care. Readings are drawn from both philosophical and medical discussions. Prerequisite: completion of BTS-T or permission of instructor. Offered annually. Counts toward biomedical studies and neuroscience concentrations.
In this course students gain an appreciation for the drug development process, including how natural products are isolated, how their structures relate to activities, and how research into the mechanism of disease leads to the targeted development of drugs. Issues relating to medicinal chemistry in a developing-world context, medicinal plants, and the chemical basis of folk medicine are discussed. Prerequisites: Chemistry 248 and 254. Offered alternate years during Interim. Counts toward biomedical studies concentration.
How do people understand illness and healing? How does social inequality shape health? These are among the questions explored by medical anthropology. In this course students examine the ways people in different societies experience their bodies, by looking at AIDS in Haiti, old age in India, and childbirth in the United States. Students investigate diverse understandings of health, different means of promoting healing, and the role of power in providing medical care. Prerequisite: one sociology/anthropology course. Offered annually in the fall or spring semester. Counts toward biomedical studies concentration (for students through class of 2016).
This course is a service/learning experience. Week one is spent on campus learning basic clinical techniques, examining emerging disease, and studying existing health care issues. Students spend three weeks in Cuzco, Peru, assessing patient needs in a public hospital, a homeless shelter, orphanages, and a small village. Week four involves discussion and writing reflective journals. Prerequisites: Biology 125 or Chemistry/Biology 125-127, and Biology 291. Apply through the Office of International and Off-Campus Studies. Offered during Interim. Counts toward biomedical studies concentration.
This course surveys the history of the medical professions in Europe and the U.S. from 1700 to the present, with attention to legacies from earlier periods. The unifying theme is "vocation," understood as a lived experience shaped by the values and expectations of practitioner, profession, and society, and manifested in various ways. Students examine scientific, cultural, institutional, ethical, and personal factors influencing the development of physicians and their practice in specific historical contexts. Offered periodically. Counts toward biomedical studies concentration (for students through class of 2016).
This course focuses on critical issues in contemporary health care. Topics include principles of wellness, health promotion, sensory perception, interpersonal communication, cultural competency, and legal, political, and economic aspects of the health care system in the United States. Students have the opportunity to explore health care issues, such as genomics, bio-terrorism, and global health problems. Taken concurrently with Nursing 304, 306, and 308. Offered annually in the fall semester. Counts toward biomedical studies concentration.
Immunology focuses on the structure, development and function of the immune system. The course explores the molecular and cellular basis of the immune responses. The application of immunological principles to allergy, autoimmunity, AIDS, transplantation, and cancer are included. Students attend lectures plus a two-hour discussion per week. Prerequisites: Biology 125 and 233, and one semester of chemistry, or Chemistry/Biology 125-127 and 233.
SPECIAL INTERNSHIPS AND OPPORTUNITIES
The Physician in Clinical and Hospital Health Care
The program occurs during the St. Olaf January term 2011 at the clinics and hospitals of the Fairview Health System in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area or at the Family Health Clinic in Willmar, Minnesota. Students at the Fairview locations are assigned in pairs to a physician in a given clinical setting who serves as their primary mentor. The students shadow their primary mentor or other designated physicians through their daily activities in pertinent clinical and hospital settings. The student experience involves exposure to primary and speciality care area settings involving all age group patients. Students may experience emergency care and will become acquainted with may providers in discussions about the field of medicine. If appropriate and possible, students will be invited to attend lectures and grand rounds that are held during the student observation period. Students are observers only; they will not participate in the delivery of medical care unless cleared to do so in an emergency. The Fairview Clinics involved are: Burnsville Ridges, Cedar Ridge, Eden Center, Hiawatha, and lakes Regional Medical Center. Students are responsible for their own transporation to the assigned clinic site either from their home or from campus. Contact Professor Wes Pearson for further information.
Mayo Innovation Scholars Program
Mayo Innovation Scholars Program offers an opportunity for selected undergraduate science and economics majors to evaluate projects submitted to the Mayo Clinic Ventures, the arm of Mayo responsible for evaluating potential business opportunities for discoveries and inventions created by Mayo Clinic physicians and researchers. This program is an initiative between a select group of Minnesota Private Colleges and the Mayo Clinic, with funding through the Medtronic Foundation. A team of four students will represent St. Olaf College this year in the Mayo Innovation Scholars Program. The project team will be comprised of students representing a variety of science and economics backgrounds who demonstrate strong analytical and communication skills and success as an effective team member. The experience will be offered as an interdisciplinary course (ID 396) for 1.0 credit. Kevin Crisp, Biology and Neuroscience, will serve as the faculty advisor. The team will also be mentored by an MBA graduate student. Students apply through The Piper Center.
Independent Study in Anatomy
For the past 22 years, the Human Gross Anatomy Independent Study course offers a unique opportunity for eight undergraduate students to dissect two human cadavers. Dissection is completed during the fall with the expectation that dissectors will also participate as teaching assistants for the lab component of the Human Anatomy and Physiology II course. Students apply through the Biology Department.
Campus contact person: Rebecca Judge, Economics Department
Recommended: Courses in political science and economics are most directly applicable and are strongly rec-ommended. However, a broad liberal arts education also provides strong preparation. Courses in all disciplines can offer unique perspectives on public policy issues and excellent training for a career in public service.
Students with an interest in an international career (such as the Foreign Service) should, in addition to courses recommended above, pursue advanced foreign language studies.
Campus contact person: College Pastor Matthew Marohl, DeAne Lagerquist, James Hanson, or Torin Alexander, Religion Department
The Association of Theological Schools recommends that college students study the following subjects: English language and literature; history, including non-Western cultures as well as European and American; philosophy, particularly its history and its methods; natural sciences, both the physical and the life sciences; social sciences, where psychology, sociology, and anthropology are particularly appropriate; the fine arts and music, especially for their creative and symbolic values; Biblical and modern languages; religion, both in the Judeo-Christian and in the Near and Far Eastern traditions.
Students should acquaint themselves with the specific entrance requirements of the schools to which they might apply.
Students interested in further advice may consult with the college pastor or with members of the Religion Department.