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When citing books, articles, musical scores, and other materials in your notes and bibliography, you are to follow the instructions and examples provided by Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (6th ed.). This handout gives examples for most of the situations you will encounter, following Turabian's formatting instructions. If you have questions about matters not cited here, consult Turabian (Music library (REF LB2369 .T8 1996).
Some sources used in musical research, however, raise questions not fully addressed by Turabian. This handout will give you some guidance on these matters. The references provided refer to comparable examples in Turabian, primarily from chapters 8 and 11. Note that chapter 11 is entitled "Comparing the Two Citation Systems." It compares footnote and bibliographic form with parenthetical reference form and reference list form. Since for your music history papers, you will be using footnotes and bibliographies, follow the examples in Turabian marked "N" and "B" only (footnote form and bibliographic form). Do NOT follow the examples marked "PR" (parenthetical references) or "RL" (reference list form). You will not be using parenthetical references or reference lists for music history papers.
For all items note the essential differences between footnote and bibliographic format. First, the indentation is different: in footnotes the first line is indented, the others are not; in bibliographic entries, the first line is at the margin, the others are indented. Second, in footnotes the various elements are separated primarily by commas, and the publishing information is enclosed in parentheses; in bibliographic entries the elements are separated primarily by periods, and the publishing information is not enclosed in parentheses. Finally, in bibliographic entries, the name of the author is inverted (in cases of multiple authors. the first only); in footnotes it is not.
A caution regarding punctuation and capitalization: You cannot simply copy and paste from Bridge into your bibliography. You will need to provide appropriate punctuation and capitalization. Note that capitalization practices are different in English than in foreign languages: in English most words are capitalized, in foreign languages (except German) only the first word is capitalized, except of course for proper nouns. In German all nouns are capitalized.
Entries for books, articles within books, and journal articles are pretty straightforward, though some care needs to be taken with additional information such as multiple authors, translators, editors, books that are part of a series, reprints, editions other than the first, etc. Samples for all these possibilities can be found in Turabian, chapters 8 and 11.
1. Marcia Citron, Gender and the Musical Canon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 45.
Citron, Marcia. Gender and the Musical Canon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
2. Article from a journal.
1. Gary Tomlinson, "Madrigal, Monody, and Monteverdi's 'via naturale alla immitatione'," Journal of the American Musicological Society 34 (Spring, 1981):65.
Tomlinson, Gary. "Madrigal, Monody, and Monteverdi's 'via naturale alla immitatione,'" Journal of the American Musicological Society 34 (Spring, 1981): 60-108.
3. Article in a book
(Turabian refers to this as "Component Part by One Author in a Work by another." See 11.26).
1. Gina Spagnoli, "Dresden at the Time of Heinrich Schütz," in The Early Baroque Era: From the Late 16th Century to the 1660s, ed. Curtis Price, 164-184. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993), 165.
Spagnoli, Gina. "Dresden at the Time of Heinrich Schütz." In The Early Baroque Era: From the Late 16th Century to the 1660s, ed. Curtis Price, 164-184. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993).
4. Chapter or other titled parts of a book by the same author.
1. Claude Palisca, "The First Performance of Euridice," in Studies in the History of Italian Music and Music Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 143-167.
Palisca, Claude. "The First Performance of Euridice." In Studies in the History of Italian Music and Music Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Hill, John Walter. "Music in England under the First Stuart Kings and Commonwealth." Chap. 7 in Studies in the History of Italian Music and Music Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
5. Musical works in collected sets, historical editions, and complete works.
In particular, published musical scores contained in historical sets and collected editions often present problems. Turabian offers an example of a relatively simple entry for a stand-alone score of a Mozart opera (p. 210). When a work is included in a larger set, citation is not so simple. In many ways editions of musical works parallel those of texted works, though, so the information should generally be provided for the reader in the same format and order:
In the case of a major work that appears within a volume of a composer's complete works, you may wish to cite the work itself (cf. Turabian 11.13, 11.16). Note that it is not necessary to cite page numbers in the bibliographic entry. Since you are citing this one volume only, you would use the publication date of the volume rather than the inclusive dates for the set.
12. Guillaume Dufay, Missa "Se la face ay pale," Opera omnia, ed. Heinrich Besseler, vol. 3, Missarum pars altera, Corpus mensurabilis musicae, no. 1 (Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1962), 33-65.
Dufay, Guillaume. Missa "Se la face ay pale." Opera omnia.Vol. 3, Missarum pars altera. Edited by Heinrich Besseler. Corpus mensurabilis musicae, no. 1. Rome: American Institute of Musicology, 1962.
In the bibliographic citation I have put the name of the editor, Besseler, after the title of volume 3, since I am citing only that volume. He is also the editor of the complete Dufay Opera omnia, so his name could just as well appear before the title of the volume. Note that the series title, Corpus mensurabilis musicae, is not italicized.
In the case of Orlando di Lasso's motets, the most recent edition appears as a number of volumes in the series Recent Researches in the Music of the Renaissance, so one must cite the title of the volume itself, its number in the Lasso motet series, and its number in the RRRen series. Since the volume number appears both on the title page and in the on-line library listing as part of the title for the volume cited here, you should include it as part of the title. (Cf. Turabian 11.13 and 11.16.) For the footnote example, I have cited a specific piece in the volume. That is not necessary for the bibliographic reference.
12. Orlando di Lasso, "Nectar et ambrosiam," The Complete Motets 16: Cantiones sacrae sex vocum (Graz, 1594), ed. David Crook, Recent Researches in the Music of the Renaissance, vol. 131 (Madison, Wis: A-R Editions, 2002), 5-11.
Lasso, Orlando di. The Complete Motets 16: Cantiones sacrae sex vocum (Graz, 1594). Edited by David Crook. Recent Researches in the Music of the Renaissance, vol. 131. Madison, Wis: A-R Editions, 2002.
When a volume contains works by a number of different composers or by unknown composers, it should be cited under the name of the editor.
12. Judith Cohen, ed., Six Anonymous L'Homme armé Masses in Naples, Biblioteca nazionale, MS VI E 40, Corpus mensurabilis musicae, no. 85 (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: American Institute of Musicology, Hänssler Verlag, 1981), 35.
Cohen, Judith, ed. Six Anonymous L'Homme armé Masses in Naples, Biblioteca nazionale, MS VI E 40. Corpus mensurabilis musicae, no. 85. Neuhausen-Stuttgart: American Institute of Musicology, Hänssler Verlag, 1981.
If you wanted to cite one of the masses only, you would do so as follows:
12. Anonymous, Missa L'Homme armé I, Six Anonymous L'Homme armé Masses in Naples, Biblioteca nazionale, MS VI E 40, ed. Judith Cohen, Corpus mensurabilis musicae, no. 85 (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: American Institute of Musicology, Hänssler Verlag, 1981), 1-22.
6. Articles in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
The New Grove (NG) contains extensive articles written by recognized authorities in the field; therefore it is important to cite the author. Although most style guide give several options for citing articles in dictionaries and encyclopedias, for your papers here you must cite them by author (see Turabian 8:112, the last example, which, unfortunately, gives footnote form only). When you use the bound volumes of NG you should provide volume and page number also (this differs from Turabian).
12. Anthony Hicks, "Handel, George Frederic," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., II: 756.
Hicks, Anthony. "Handel, George Frederic." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., 10: 747-813.
7. Sound Recordings
Turabian, p.211, provides the general format for citing sound recordings but uses a relatively uncomplicated example and not a musical one. The most problematic aspect of citing sound recordings may determining whether the album you are using has a title. Sometimes it is obvious, sometimes not. Since unlike books, albums have no title page, you will have to go by the album cover and the listing in Bridge and use your best judgment. In cases where a recording clearly has an album title, it should be cited. Many albums provide both recording session date(s) and publication date; be sure to use the latter.
12. Franz Schubert, "Hoffnung," Follow Goethe: Lieder after Poems by Goethe, Christoph Prégardien, tenor; Michael Gees, piano, CPO 999685-2, 1999, compact disc.
Schubert, Franz. "Hoffnung." Follow Goethe: Lieder after Poems by Goethe. Christoph Prégardien, tenor; Michael Gees, piano. CPO 999685-2, 1999. Compact disc.
Sometimes the title of the album is the principle work on the album, and it may be the work of a different composer, as in the following example (bibliographic form only). If the name of the ensemble might appear confusing, it is acceptable to add "performed by" (compare with "edited by"):
Des Prez, Josquin. "Berzerette savoyenne." Antoine Brumel, Missa Berzerette savoyenne. Performed by Chanticleer. Chanticleer Records CR-8805, 1991. Compact disc.
In many cases, though, the cover merely lists the works included on the album, sometimes by multiple composers. The following disc includes the Beethoven Symphony no. 3 along with a Schubert symphony. There is no title.
12. Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony no. 3 in E-Flat Major, "Eroica," The London Classical Players, cond. Roger Norrington, EMI 7-49101-2, 1989, compact disc.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 3 in E-Flat Major, "Eroica." The London Classical Players, conducted by Roger Norrington. EMI 7-49101-2, 1989. Compact disc.
For citation of articles in the booklets that accompany CD recordings, see Turabian 8.144, ex. 3.
8. Internet Sources
Turabian doesn't give helpful examples for on-line sources, but see http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html and follow the link for Chicago Style, World Wide Web site, for examples.
a. The information you should include and the order is as follows:
12. David Vickers, Interview with Judy Tarling, Interviews 3 (January 2002), <http://www.gfhandel.org> (Aug. 5, 2004).
Vickers, David. Interview with Judy Tarling. Interviews 3 (January 2002). <http://www.gfhandel.org> (Aug. 5, 2004).
12. Ludwig van Beethoven, "The 'Heiligenstädter Testament,'" The Classical Music Pages Quarterly, Historical Documents, English and German, name of translator not provided, <http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/beethoven_heiligenstadt.html> (Aug. 24, 2004).
Beethoven, Ludwig van. "The 'Heiligenstädter Testament.'" The Classical Music Pages Quarterly, Historical Documents. English and German. Name of translator not provided. <http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/beethoven_heiligenstadt.html> (Aug. 24, 2004).
b. Citing an article in an on-line journal. See also Turabian 8:101.
12. Jeffrey Kurtzman, "Deconstructing Gender in Monteverdi's L'Orfeo," Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music 9, no. 1 (2003), <http://www.sscm-jscm.org/jscm/v9/no1/Kurtzman.html> (Aug. 24, 2004).
Kurtzman, Jeffrey. "Deconstructing Gender in Monteverdi's L'Orfeo." Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music 9, no. 1 (2003). <http://www.sscm-jscm.org/jscm/v9/no1/Kurtzman.html> (Aug. 24, 2004).
c. Citing articles from The New Grove online:
12. Joseph Kerman, Alan Tyson, and Scott G. Burnham, "Beethoven, Ludwig van," Grove Music Online, http: www.oxfordmusiconline.com (accessed August 8, 2004).Note: The full URL would be as follows. That is too cumbersome, so abbreviate it as above.
Kerman, Joseph, Alan Tyson, and Scott G. Burnham. "Beethoven, Ludwig van." Grove Music Online. http: www.oxfordmusiconline.com (accessed Aug. 8, 2004)
NB: At the bottom of the screen in NG online you will find a link How to cite Grove Music Online. Please follow the format given above rather than the format give there. NG is a British publication, and European format guidelines are different than American practices.
9. Arrangement of entries in the bibliography:
a. List the items in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Items should not be numbered.
b. Use the 3-em dash (opt-shift-minus x 3) for repeated names in a bibliography:
Kerman, Joseph. Concerto Conversations. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.
---. "On William Byrd's Emendemus in melius." Hearing the Motet: Essays on the Motet of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Edited by Dolores Pesce. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
10. Short form for footnotes:
Your initial citation of a work must provide the essential bibliographic information as shown in the previous examples. Subsequent citations should use the short form, which includes author's last name, title of the article or book (long titles may be abbreviated), and page number:
12. Palisca, "The First Performance of Euridice," 143-167.
For successive citations of a work in consecutive footnotes, however, you may simply use the abbreviation "Ibid.," (short for ibidem, "in the same place").
12. Cleaver, The Churches of Bavaria, 43.
13. Ibid., 64.
However, if you draw on a work throughout a section of your paper, rather than placing a note at the end of every sentence, you may cite the work once and inform the reader that you are drawing on this source for much of the information in that section of the paper.
11. Footnotes that provide more than bibliographic information:
In some cases you will find it necessary to provide more than basic bibliographic information in your footnotes. There are various ways to do this. Here are some examples:
12. Cleaver, The Churches of Bavaria, p. 43, offers sixteenth-century engravings of the interiors of two churches in Munich, though not the particular one discussed in this paper.
13. This would probably have been true even of the Italians in Antwerp, since they were primarily merchants and financiers. The city hosted large communities of foreign businessmen, and the largest group of these were Italians, particularly the Genoese. Kristine Forney has suggested that it was for this community that the Italian-titled version of Lassus's Opus 1 was issued; see Kristine K. Forney, "Orlando di Lasso's 'Opus 1': The Making and Marketing of a Renaissance Music Book," Revue belge de musicologie 39-40 (1985-86), 33-60.