Final Paper

Searching for Information:  The best source at St. Olaf online for psych information is Psych Info; go to St. Olaf, Libraries, Indexes and databases, Social Sciences, and then you have two choices:  1)  go to Psych Info directly, or 2) go to Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, and you can select Psych Info, among other resources (check all that are relevant).  If you're searching for both psychological and medical news/information, Cambridge is the better choice -- it also has Medline, the government's database for medical information, and ERIC (Educational database, with lots of psych info, but not as complete as Psych Info.

Back on the social sciences site, Expanded Academic ASAP is a broad site, including some medical and some psych info.  All of these are abstract'll need to find or order the actual articles if the abstracts look relevant.  We have a few journals online, but not many -- go to libraries, then electronic journals; the psych-relevant ones that I found are Annual Review of Psychology; Journal of Health and Social Behavior; Journal of Community Psychology; and Journal of Clinical Psychology.  There may be others.  However, I would focus on finding the best information through searches of the abstracts, then getting the articles.  If you need to order them, it takes about 7-10 days to receive them; start now!

Locating articles:
  When you have run a search and the titles of the abstracts matching your search are listed, click "location" by an article of interest, and then click St. Olaf and Carleton to see whether we have this or not; occasionally the article is listed as being available online - if not, you can order it online (see boxes below St. Olaf and Carelton).  Sometimes, you may be able to directly access a particular journal article in full text by doing the following:  use Google as your search engine, then type in the full name of the journal, and try searching for your article - some permit this, others don't.  Some require you to register, but allow free access.  Don't count on this, but sometimes it works.  A search of Google for "free journals" pulls up a site listing many "free" medical journals but a few others as well, some of which have free trial periods, or are free if they are the current issue only, or past issues only (e.g., 6 month ago).  Some are simply free!  BMJ is one of these - it's actually an access point to a collection of medical journals, including BMJ (British Medical Journal), accessed at

Cutting edge drugs/medical research news:
  try PR Newswire, Reuters Health News, or Business Wire - do a search on their news.
Web sites that may have relevant information:  American Psychological Association; New Women's Mental Health Consortium web site  (NIMH). For the latest NIMH news, you can subscribe to their email service; go to the "NIMH-E-NEWS LISTSERV" section of the NIMH web site <>.  Medscape is a good medical site for a variety of health and mental health news.  It has Medline (free registration required), but it also has news, continuing medical education articles (CME's - more indepth treatment of an issue followed by a quiz), drug info, specialty sites (e.g., cardiovascular, mental health, women's health, cancer, etc.), and other areas.

APA Style for Papers
- summary  See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) for further details.  Excerpted from 4th Ed.

Format:  Papers should be in APA style.  Papers should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced throughout (including the references), with margins of at least 1 inch. All pages must be numbered.   The first page should include the title of the paper, first name, middle initial(s) and last name of the author(s), and for each author a short institutional address (St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN).  [If you are sending this to a journal, you also need an abbreviated title as a header (top right hand corner of every page), and at the bottom of the first page give the full name and address (including telephone and e-mail address if possible) of the author to whom all correspondence (including proofs) should be sent.   You may omit this if this is a paper for class.]  The second page should repeat the title and contain an abstract of no more than 200 words. The third page should repeat the title as a heading to the main body of the text.

Research Papers (involving data collection and/or analysis):  Use the headings Introduction, Methods (subheadings:  Subjects, Procedure, Materials), Results, Discussion. 

Library research paper: include Introduction; other headings and subheadings should be specific to your topic to  help the reader identify the major areas of the paper.
All papers:  References, Appendices and Tables are at the end of the paper.

References in text:  References should follow APA style. All references in Reference List must be cited in the text.

1 author:  cite author's last name and year of publication e.g., a study of ...found ... (Woods, 1995) or Woods (1995) found ....

2 authors:  always use both in text, e.g.,  A study of ADHD (Mansell & McGill, 1995) or Mansell and McGill (1995) found....Note the use of "&" and "and".

3-5 authors:  First mention - cite all authors and the year.  Subsequent mention: first author "et al.", e.g., (Gallico et al., 1986).  Exceptions:  If the condensed citation is identical to a different citation when condensed, cite as many authors as needed to distinguish them, followed by "et al.".

6 authors:  Cite only the first author followed by "et al.", e.g., (Gallico et al., 1986) found that...Exceptions:  same as for 3-5 authors.

2 or > works by same author, same year:  (Olson, 1995a, 1995b)

2 or > works by same author,  different years (Olson, 1997, 1998, in press).  Note order from oldest to most recent; "in press" is always last.

Same surname, 2 or > primary authors:  To avoid confusion, even if different years, include author's initials, e.g., D.M. Olson (1988) and R.P. Olson (1971)

2 or > works by different authors:  Alphabetical order, separate citations by semicolon, e.g.(Elford & Sherr, 1989; Folkman,1992; Woods, 1995).

2 or > works by same author,same author(s) and year is listed, the date should be followed by (a), (b) etc., e.g. (Blazer, 1995a).

Direct quotes:  To cite specific pages, chapters, figures, tables, give page numbers, e.g., (Woods, 1995, p. 35) or (Hanson, 1998, chap. 4)
Electronic references (internet sources, online databases):  See  American Psychological Association...links, electronic references;
Group citations, readily identifed by its abbreviation:  First citation:  (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999).  Second citation: (NIMH, 1999)
No author:  cite first words of reference list entry (usually the title) and year, e.g., ("Study Finds," 1999).  If a book: Having it All (1990)
Anonymous authors:    (Anonymous, 1998)
Classical works:  Examples:  Freud (1906)   (Plato, transl.1954)   1 Cor.  13:1 (Revised Standard Version
Personal communications (letters, memos, email, discussion groups, conversations):  Give initials and surname and as exact a date as possible, e.g., M. S. Vang  (personal communication, April 22, 2002).  Do not include in reference list, since these data are not considered to be "recoverable".
Citations in parenthetical material:  Ex:  (see Table 1 of Hamdula, 2001, for complete data)

Reference list:
  Works cited in the text should be listed at the end of the paper on a separate sheet(s), double spaced   Do not list references which you read, but did not use, or personal communications.  See APA journals for examples.

  Alphabetize by author's surname - >1 work by same author - earliest year first if one author; one-author precedes multiple authors beginning with same surname; if same first author and different second author, alphabetize by second author; if same authors in same order, arrange by year of publication, earliest year first.  If same author and year, alphabetize by title and add a,b,c,etc. after year, e.g., Lu, S.K. (1998a).  Analysis...   precedes Lu, S.K. (1998b).  Big...
    Exs: Lu, D. J. (1995) precedes Lu, D. J. (1998).  Lu, D. J. (1995) precedes Lu, D. J. & Fong, S. K. (1991).   Lu, D.J. & Earl, S. (1995) precedes Lu, D.J. & Fong, S. K. (1999).  Lu, D. J. & Fong, S. K. (1991) precedes Lu, D. J. & Fong, S. K. (1996).
Group authors;  alphabetize, don't abbreviate; parent unit precedes subdivision, e.g., St. Olaf College precedes Dept. of Psychology.  If work is signed Anonymous, it is alphabetized - if no author, the title moves to author position.

General Forms:

    a) Periodical (journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters):  Author, initials, & author, initials (year).  Title (capitalize only first word).  Journal (italics), volume (italics), pages.  Cite all authors. Ex:  Woods, B. J. & Scarlett, H. G. (1995). Dementia care: progress and prospects.  Journal of Mental Health, 5,115-124.  [Journal and Volume in italics].  If it is a journal article which has been accepted for publication, but it hasn't been published yet, substitute "in press" for the year.
Magazine article.  Selner, I.I. (2001, September 15).  Off the track?  Utne Reader, 163, 37-53.
Newsletter article  Chulia, L.O. (1998, Spring).  Brain sex.  Psychology Updates Monthly, 53, 98-101.
Newsletter article, no author  Dividing consciousness.  (1999, September/October).  Copy Editor, 5, 19-23.
Daily newpaper article, no author  Yoghurt bacteria help migraines.  (2002, April 14).  Minneapolis Star-Tribune, p. A16.  If disontinuous pages, list all (e.g., p. A16, B2, B5.)

    b) Nonperiodicals:  Author, A.A. (year).  Title of work.  Location:  Publisher.  Ex:  Worler, A. H. (2002). Songs my mother taught me.  Minneapolis, MN:

    c) Books: Norman, A. (1987). Aspects of ageism. London: Centre for Policy on Ageing.  If group author (government agency, APA, etc.) agency name is first.

    d) Chapters within multi-authored books:
Robertson, I. T. (1994). Personality and personnel selection. In C. L. COOPER & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in organizational behavior (pp. 75-89). Chichester: Wiley.

All illustrations (including photographs, graphs and diagrams) should be referred to as Figures and their position indicated in the text (e.g. Fig. 3).
Titles of figures are underneath the figure, in plain text.

    Tables  Submit on separate sheets, numbered in Arabic numerals, and their position indicated in the text (e.g. Table 1). Each table should have a
short, self-explanatory title. Vertical rules should not be used to separate columns. Units should appear in parentheses in the column heading but not in the body of
the table. Any explanatory notes should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table.