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Exam 2

Glossary Terms

All of the following 53 terms should be included in your glossary. Do not use more than 2 sentences in explaining each term. You can certainly work with others to obtain initial definitions of the terms, but the definitions you turn in must be in your own words.

Walden Two Terms

  1. Emotion, development of 92
  2. Experimental Attitude 25, 120
  3. Family 126, 128, 291
  4. Good Life 146, 180
  5. Government 180, 188, 249
  6. Hero 220, 259
  7. Lecture 36
  8. Mother love 89
  9. Politics 180, 183, 188, 189
  10. Punishment 244
  11. Reinforcement theory 244
  12. Religion 184, 278
  13. Science of human behavior 274
  14. Self-control 96

M & D terms

Aggression and Television

  1. observational learning
  2. multiple causation in aggression

Experimental Design

  1. random assignment
  2. manipulating only one variable
  3. independent and dependent variable
  4. experimental and control group
  5. confounding
  6. random sampling

Classical Conditioning

  1. classical conditioning
  2. figure 12.2 (page 123)
  3. acquisition curve
  4. extinction
  5. spontaneous recovery
  6. discrimination
  7. generalization
  8. experimental neurosis

Operant Conditioning

  1. cumulative response curve
  2. operant conditioning
  3. primary and secondary reinforcer
  4. positive reinforcement
  5. negative reinforcement
  6. discriminative stimulus
  7. patterns of partial reinforcment

Punishment

  1. the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement
  2. problems with punishment
  3. guidelines for using punishment

Evolution

  1. evolutionary adaptation of behavior
  2. evolutionary fitness
  3. evolution as a foundation for morality (from lecture)

Individual Differences

  1. Heritability index
  2. Heritability and group differences

Critique of Learning Models

  1. instinctive drift
  2. prepared learning
  3. conditioned taste aversion

Personality and Behavior

  1. reasons for thinking behavior has internal causes
  2. five-factor model of personality traits
  3. understanding vs prediction in the use of personality tests
  4. trait-situation interaction

Essay

Answer the following short essay question. Make sure to base your answer on the grading rubric we provide.

Skinner and Freud both talk about issues of morality. Contrast their views of (a) how morality is acquired and (b) what a moral decision involves. Use examples from the My Lai incident to explain the views of each psychologist.


The My Lai Incident

In 1968, during the height of the Vietnam war, company C (Charlie Company) was assigned part of the task of "cleaning out" Song Mai, a village that was known to have harbored Viet Cong. The assignment for Charlie Company was the hamlet of My Lai. An army photographer went along to chronicle the assault. What occurred instead was a massacre of civilians. Old men, women, babies in mother's arms, were all shot. Houses were torched (a standard procedure). Some soldiers refused to participate, others pretended, others helped reluctantly, no one admits joining in without reservation. One soldier shot himself in the foot to escape. A helicopter pilot saved many civilians by placing his helicopter in the line of fire between some of the soldiers and civilians hiding in a ditch. Estimates of the number of civilians killed were as high as 350. One Lieutenant (Calley) was court-martialed for his involvement in the massacre. Several others were tried but acquitted.

You can find out more about the incident at:

The original LIFE photographs and story from Dec. 5 1969. You can click on the photos to get an enlarged view: Be careful, they are very graphic.

The My Lai Courts-Martial Trial Web Site

The Soldier's Medal citation for Hugh Thompson. Thompson was in command of a helicopter in the operation and landed between American troops and civilians about to be killed. The Soldier's medal is the highest citation an armed forces member can receive for action taken while not in contact with the enemy.


Intentional Community

Both Twin Oaks (founded 1967) and Los Horcones (founded 1973) are Intentional Communities that were originally founded based on principles gleaned from Walden Two and from the experimental science of behavior. They have both survived for some time now. To think about the question associated with this case, you will need read about Twin Oaks and Los Horcones from their own web sites. Do not just read the one page we have linked you to for each community. Instead, look around on the site to see what you can find out about how the community governs itself, how it incorporates members, and how it deals with difficulties. Look particularly to see how each community uses ideas from Walden Two or from behaviorist psychology.

The more successful Twin Oaks community has changed the way it depends on behaviorist principles. Los Horcones has remained faithful to its original vision but still struggles with finances and adequate membership. Some have commented that it is this change away from strict Skinnerian principles that has help Twin Oaks avoid problems. Others say that the differences are more a result of difference approaches to advertising and financing the community.

But the communities also share much in common. Both communities report that their membership has a consistent amount of "churn" created by members who join and then leave a year or two (sometimes a month or two) later. Both communities report that there is a significant "training in" period in which members become accustomed to the life in the community. Both communities share work in an egalitarian manner, and neither has reached the utopian Walden Two ideal of 4 hours of work a day.

The multiple choice questions about this case will ask you to apply the terms (see the list above) to the case in a way that helps us understand the differences between the two communities and their successes and failures.

 

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