Potential Exam Questions.
Use these potential exams questions to help you study for the weekly exams.
They are not an indication of all the material that you need to cover in your
reading, particularly in preparation for writing your papers. But they at least
let you be prepared for the exams we will have.
The Social Animal
- How does having an ally in non-conformity change
- How does prior commitment influence conformity?
- Are people with low or high self esteem more likely to
- Are there gender differences in conformity?
- What is the diffference between the conformity pressure an
ingroup and an outgroup member induces?
- What is the difference between informational pressure and social pressure?
- Distinguish compliance, identification, and internalization
from each other.
- What is emotional contagion and how does publicity produce it?
- How does familiarity increase liking for something (or someone)?
- What is the difference between central and peripheral routes to persuasion?
- Give an example of two things that can influence communicator credibility.
- Why is "inadvertent" persuasion effective?
- Why are attractive of communicators more effective? When are they not?
- What is reactance?
- Under what circumstances does fear work as a motivtor to opinion and
- Why are vivid examples more effective than statistics in persuasion?
- When are one sided arguments more effective than two sided arguments?
- How does order of presentation effect immediate vs. long term decisions?
- What is the appropriate size of the discrepancy in message content to
produce maximum attitude change?
- Hw does the self esteem of the target affect persuation?
- How does inoculation work?
- What is the difference betwen an opinion and an attitude?
- How do consensus, consistency and distinctiveness help us decide the causes
of someone's actions?
- What is a cognitive miser, and how does this principle limit the resources
- How does contrast make a poor choice seem better?
- Why does priming work?
- What is framing and does it differ from contrast?
- What is the representativeness heuristic?
- What is the availability heuristic and how does it relate to priming?
- How are halo effects and false consensus examples of "Attitude heuristics"?
- How does cognitive load influence the use of heuristics?
- What is the homogeneity effect and how does it help explain stereotyping?
- Give an example from our case of an Ingroup bias in perception.
- How might reconstructive memory bias testimony?
- What is the hindsight bias?
- What is the Fundamental Attribution Error? What effect do you have to add
to get the actor-observer bias?
- What is the Self Serving Bias?
- What is the psychology of inevitability?
- How is cognitive dissonance based on emotion?
- How does making a decision (any decision) increase dissonance?
- Why does the "lowball" work?
- Give an example of inadequate justification as a dissonance instigator.
- How is dissonance anchored in the self-concept
- Give an example of effort justification as a dissonance instigator.
- Why is blaming the victim likely caused by dissonance?
- How does self-esteem interact with dissonance to produce adherance to an
- What is a stereotype? Why are they useful? How are they misleading?
- How does stereotype threat work to reduce the achievement of targeted groups?
- How does the FAE combine with group prejudice to produce the ultimate attribution
- How does the hindsight bias support blaming the victim?
- How does the topic of persuasion affect the persuadability of men and women?
- How is racial prejudice more sophisticated or subtle today?
- What is benevolent sexism and how does it different from hostile sexism?
- How do the following causes of prejudice work? Competition, scapegoating,
status maintenance, authoritarianism, conformity.
- Why are educational campaigns unlikely to reduce prejudice?
- How should you set up contact between prejudiced groups in order to reduce
Chap 1: Setting Parameters
- Why are intent and motivation crucial to consider in defining (and explaining)
- What are the various forms that aggression can take?
- What is the difference between affective and instrumental aggression?
- Give examples of reactive and proactive aggression. Do they need different
- What was the primary shared fault in popular explanation of the Littleton
CO school shootings?
- How does dividing the "causes" of the Littleton CO shootings into
provocation, method, and background variables help in understanding it?
- How is inhibition of aggression related to social competence?
- Do increases in testoserone produce increases in aggression? Why is it more
- How is impulse control mapped onto connections in the brain?
- How does social learning theory weave together genetics, learning, and the
current situation to explain aggression?
- Do highly contrived laboratory studies have any relevance to explaining
real world violence?
Chap 2: Provocation
- Name two kinds of provoking conditions that lead to aggression
- How does frustration-aggression explain the results of the Hovalnd &
Sears study of cotton prices and lynchings in the south?
- What is relative deprivation and how does it relate to perceived injustice
(and thus become a provoking factor to aggression)?
- What is the difference between fraternal and egoistic relative deprivation?
- How is arousal related to frustration (and aggression)?
- How can an attack be construed so as not to provoke aggression?
- Is intention or intensity of the attack more powerful on prediting aggression?
What does this say about the simple arousal hypothesis?
- How do victims and aggressors differ in their interpretation of an attack?
- How does Berkowitz's cognitive-neoassociationist model differ from the frustration-arousal-aggression
- What is the relationship between temperature and aggression?
- How does temperature affect affect and cognition (and thus aggression)?
- What does it mean to say that noise is an "intensifier of behavior"
in its effect on aggression?
- What is displaced aggression and how does provocation by the scapegoat change
the relationship between intensity and aggression?
Chap 3: Emotion & Cognition
- What is excitation transfer? How is it different from displaced aggression?
- What is the difference between trait and state anger?
- How do attribution of intent, motive and foreseeability mediate anger?
- What is the hostile attribution bias? How does it affect the generation
of solutions to interpersonal problems?
- What are aggressive scripts and how are they related to aggressive behavior?
- What is GAAM and how does it differ from Berkowitz's model (compare the
pictures on p. 31 and 56)?
- How does looking in a mirror reduce the dis-inhibitory effect of alcohol
Chap 4: Moderating Variables
- How do men and women differ in their perception of provoking circumstances?
- How do men and women differ in their belief about the negative consequences
- What is relational aggression and how do men and women differ in this form
- How do direct and indirect aggression differ in their gender differences
during the development of children?
- How do men and women differ in their self-attributions about their aggression?
- How are personality differences in aggression maintained over time?
- How is the personality trait of irritability related to cognitive associations
about violence (and thus to aggression)?
- How are narcissism and self-esteen related to reactions to provocation?
- How does impulsivity explain the relation bethween personality disorders
- How does Geen explain the effect of firearms on violence? What alternative
explanation does he suggest?
- What is the basis for the southern US "culture of violence"?
Chap 5: Aggression in Context (Bullies etc.)
- How is provocation related to particular incidents of spouse abuse?
- How does passive aggression prior to marriage help predict escalation of
violence after marriage?
- Make a list of the contributing fctors to spousal abuse.
- What are the differences between overcontrolled abuse, psychopathic abuse
and borderline abuse?
- Are likely rapist morearounsed by sexual violence or is it that males less
likely to rape are "un-aroused" by violence? How does the difference
in empathy help us explain this difference?
- What are the components of hostile masculinity? How does it interact with
sexual promiscuity to produce sexual aggression?
- How do men with rape-supportive attitudes misperceived that actions of women
as hostile or seductive?
- What are the characteristics of bullies?
- What are four types of bystanders to bullying and how do they effect the
Chap 6: Video Games and other Aggressive Entertainment
- Epidemics of crime follow the line of the telegraph. Explain.
- Are depictions of real or fictional violence more likely to increase aggression?
- Why does viewing morally justified violence increase aggression?
- How does a cross-lagged panel study work? What do these studeis show about
the effect of violent television on aggression?
- How do scripts mediate the effect of watching violent media?
- What evidence is there for a catharsis effect in viewing of violent television,
playing violent video games, or watching violent sports?
- Use the Russel &Arms (1998) study to explain how a group of males encourage
each other to violence at a violent scpetator sport.
The Science of Emotion
Chap 1: Emotions in science and everyday life
- "Experience without emotion is like a day without weather." Explain
this simile. (p. 3)
- Explain the diffference between an independent and dependent variable. (p.
- "Theories define what is to count as data." Explain.(p. 6)
- How is a perspective/tradition different from a theory? (p. 7)
- How do meaning structures relat to emotions? (p. 8)
- How do emotions relate to the organism's goals? (p. 9)
- What are the main differences among the four traditions in emotion research
that Cornelius presents? (p. 11 ff.)
- Why does Cornelius not list neurological work as a tradition? (p. 13)
- What are the problems with self-report methods? (p. 13 & 14)
Emotional Education (pp. 176 & 177)
- What does Averill mean by saying medical students undergo emotional education?
- Since the emotional education is mostly implicit, how is it in fact communicated?
- How might mediacal student prepare themselves ahead of time for their emotional
education? Why does this still not prepare them for the shock of dealing with
- Why is emotional education not even an appropriate topic of conversation
in medical school?
- Why is the cadaver "no longer a body?"
- What is the second curriculum of emotional education that medical students
Appendix: The Neurophysiology of emotion
- Make a conceptual diagram of how the central and peripheral nervous system,
the somatic & autonomic nervous system, the sympathetic and parasympathetic
nervous system are related to each other. You might use Venn diagrams or a
branching graph structure. (p. 220-223)
- How is norepinephrine different from acetlycholine in its postsynaptic effects?
- What is the difference between afferent and efferent nerve fibers? (p. 223)
- What is the visceral afferent system and why is it important? (p. 224)
- What is the Papez loop and why is it important? (p. 224 - 226)
- Draw a picture of a cortex and label the temporal, occipital, parietal,
and frontal lobes (p. 226 & 227)
- To what does subcortical refer? (p. 226)
- What do the amygdala and hippocampus "integrate" and "control"?
- How does the amygdala perform a "homeostatic" function? (p. 227)
- What kind of learning does damage to the amygdala impair? (p. 227)
- How does the hippocampus contribute to processing emotional information?
- Why is Zajonc's idea of emotion preceeding cognition different
from Lazarus idea that all emotion involves appraisal? (p. 228 &
- How does the dual pathway model resolve this problem? (p. 229)
- Give several examplesof how the cortex is involved in shaping emotions.
- How are withdrawal emotions different from approach emotions in how they
are processed in the cerebral cortex? (p. 230)
Chap 2: Darwin
This chapter is about research on emotion done in the tradition of Darwin.
Thus, whether particular emotions (and their expressions) are universal is abig
deal for this approach. Most of the work in this area, then is about the behavior
associated with an emotion (expression, bodily movement) and not the "feeling"
of emotion. At the end of the chapter, Cornelius proposes to show us some research
that is about more than emotional expression (and he does). But this is still
mostly work on behavior (and behavior readiness or tendencies) and not really
about the feelings of emotions. So we are left with an evolutionary
puzzle from this chapter (with a small clue from Zajonc's work): why do emotions
Because I will use the prase often, I abbreviate "according to Darwin"
- In his book on The Expression of Emotions, Darwin accepts Lamark's
ideas of evolution. What dfoes this mean? Why should we not blame him for
being incorrect about this? (p. 21)
- Why did Darwin think there should be "a continuum of emotional expression
from animals to humans"? (p. 22 ff)
- What is the useful role of the flattened ears in the cat's expression of
alarm? How did it come to be tied to "any situation involving threat"?
- What is an "Intention movement"? (p. 22)
- AtD, emotional expressions did not evolve for the purpose of expression
emotion. What purpose did they serve, then? (p. 24)
- What is Darwin's "principle of antithesis"? (p. 24 & 25)
- Why, AtD, do we jump about vigorously after hitting our hand with a hammer?
- Why is weeping, AtD, during great sadness essentially an evolutionary accident?
- Why, AtD, do we feel a sense of relief after weeping? (p 27)
- What do primates, the insane, infants, and (ATD) savages have in common
for Darwin? (p. 27)
- What method for studying emotion did Darwin borrow from the French physician,
Duchenne? How did he adapt it? (p. 28 - 30)
- On what issue did Darwin and Duchenne disagree? (p.30)
- Why do Feleky's results not ontain the high levels of agreement in judgment
that researchers like Ekman produce? (p. 29 ff)
- Why would an evloutionary theory of emotion predict that emotional expressions
are universal? (p. 32)
- Why was it important for Ekman to study extremely isolated individuals?
(p32 & 33)
- Wht were fear and surprise poorly recognized by the Fore? (p. 34)
- What does Cornelius think is the origin of the agreement on the expression
of "romantic love" by his students? How does this square with evolutionary
theory? (p. 34 & 35)
- Why is Ekman a "facial athlete" and how does this help his research
program? (p. 36)
- Why are some people more affected by display rules than others? (p. 37)
- Ekman calls his set of six emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise,
disgust) fundamental. What do the two meanings of "fundamental"
imply for where these emotions came from and how they are related to other
emotions? (p. 41)
- Make a table of Ekman's 7 fundamental emotions, Izard's 10, and Plutchik's
8. What overlap is there? (p. 41 & 42)
- What is an epiphenomenon? (p. 42)
- How can a theory of emotional expression as communicative help explain the
evolution of emotional expression? (p. 43)
- Why does the bowling study show that emotional expression is social? How
does it call into question the distinction between basic emotion and display
rules? (p. 44)
- Are Ekman's pure "big six" emotions (and their display) likely
to appear spontaneously in natural settings? (p. 45)
- Make a diagram of the 8 basic behavior patterns from Plutchik, and associate
the appropriate emotions with them. (p. 46 & 47)
- How is intensity represented in Plutchik's emotion solid? (p. 48)
- How has Shaver shown that "different cultures have independently converged
on a single reality"? (p 48 - 50)
- How are action readiness, emotion, and appraisal related? (p. 50 - 52)
Chapter 3: James
In this chapter, you will follow the complex history of the James-Lange theory
of emotion. It is very complex. You should try toemerge from the welter
of studies with an appreciation for a few classic studies and the difficlties
scientists found in replicting them. The history of claim and counterclaim throughout
this chapter is a pattern you should get used to in this area. You should also
try to come to some conclusion about the correct form of the James-Lange theory
given what we now know of the complexity of the area. How should we qualify
the strong form of the theory? We will cover in class how to diagram an experiment
to make its complexities comprehensible.
- Why would it be impossible for James to imagine that Helva, The Ship
Who Sang, had feelings? (p. 58 & 59)
- Make sure you can track the causal links in the "see the bear, run,
feel fear" etc. stories. (p. 60)
- For James, what IS the emotion? (p. 60)
- What three kinds of bodily changes did James think could contribute to the
feeling of a feeling? (p. 61 & 62)
- Why, according to James, would smiling make you happy? (p. 64 & 64)
- What is the link between James' understanding of emotion and evolutionary
theory? (p. 64 & 65)
- What did James & Lange disagree on regarding emotion and the
body? (p. 67)
- Why did James think things like panic attacks were evidence for his theory?
- What was Cannon's objection to the "autonomic specificity" of
visceral feedback (and why is this a misinterpretation of James)? (p. 71)
- Describe Marañon's two factor theory of emotion. (p. 73)
- Why is Cannon's theory "centralist" while James' theory is "peripheralist"?
- Why is spinal cord damage data rlevant to James' theory? (p 75 ff)
- Explain what Schachter means by physiological arousal, and how this is different
from James' idea of the role of bodily involvement in emotion. (p. 79 ff)
- When does arousal produce "evaluative needs" according to Schachter?
- How does misattribution influence love in the coffee house? (p 80 &
- Diagram the Schachter & Singer study procedures using a flow chart and
ANOVA cells (p 82 ff, plus class lecture)
- Why was it important to have the epinephrine-misinformed group? (p. 85)
- Be able to read and interpret the table on page 84. If .98 is lower than
1.78, what does this mean? Why is it odd that .98 is smaller than 1.91?
- Did replications of Schachter & Singer support the theory? (p. 88 &
- How do misattribution effects and excitation transfer effects support Schachter's
two factor theory? (p. 89 - 94)
- What can we conclude from 30 years of work on Schacter's two factor theory?
- What is the "weaker form" of the visceral feedback argument that
Chwalisz et al's data supports? (p. 96)
- "The important issue is not whether emotion-specific bodily
reactions can be documented, but whether bodily changes inform the
individual of emotional quality." (italics mine) Why? (p. 97)
- How are men's and women's "theories" of emotion different? Why
might they be different in this way? (p. 99)
- What is the facial feedback hypothesis? (p. 100 ff)
- Draw the 2 x 2 of the Laird (1974) face posing study (p. 103 & 104)
- What is the controversy about the mechanism underlying the facial
feedback effect? (p. 105)
- Does the data on facial feedback support the idea that facial postures are
specific to particular emotions (p. 105 & 106)
- How is the Stepper & Strack "integration" explanation different
from the original facial feedback hypothesis? Can this form a basis for a
modern version of the James-Lange theory? (p. 107)
- How are the reliable autonomic differneces associated with facial expression
of emotion connected to evolutionarily adaptive traits? (p. 108 & 109)
Chapter 4: Thinking
This chapter is primarily about how emotions fisrt get started. The previous
twotradition considered this issue to be unproblematic, but when you try to
unpack it, it becomes quite complex. As you read this chapter make sure you
think through (1) how this approach sees emotion as different) and (2) how this
approach might fit together with the others.
- How complaint about the evolutionary nd Jameian traditions does the cognitve
approach make? (p. 115)
- What distinguishes mere preception from emotional perception? (p. 116)
- How does the idea of "sense judgments" work with the "two
systems" of cognition we discussed in class? (p. 117)
- Why is the cognitive perspective of Arnold a drive reduction model? (p.
- Why does Arnold think that there should be specific autonomic arousal associted
with different emotions? (p. 119)
- What role does appraisal play inArnold's system? (p. 119)
- What are cognitive coping strategies, and why do they work? (p. 120 - 121)
- How do emotions "prepare and mobilize us" to respond to a situation?
- What are "relational meaning" for Lazarus? What is being related
to what? (p. 124 ff)
- What is the difference between individual appraisal complnents and core
relational themes? (p. 125)
- How do individual appraisal components join to create a relaitonal theme?
- What is the mere exposure effect and why does it support Zajonc's claim
that affective reactions a reprimary? (p. 128 ff)
- How do Zajonc & Lazarus disagree on what an appraisal is? Can they be
harmonized? (p. 130 & 131)
- Why are interupptions important to emotions? (p. 131 & 132)
- What is the troubleshooting function of consciousness? (p. 132)
- What is meant by a modular theory of mind? (p. 135)
- How do emotions help set modules into the appropriate modes? (p. 136)
- There are two kinds of communication in the Johnson-Laird theory. What are
they? Who is communicating with whom? (p. 136 & 137)
- Give an example of an event on each of the five dimensions of emotionl appraisal
on pp. 141 & 142.
This chapter is about a tradition of research that has grown out of the cognitivist
one and been enriched by interaction with other disciplines (including philosophy,
anthropology, and sociology). The strong "splitters" critique of some
in this chapter often goes farther than you need to to understand the variation
in emotion. But again, think about how this approach can fit in with the previous
- What are the four aspects of an emotional syndrome? (p. 153)
- Do all aspects of the syndrome need to be present for an emotion to count
as present? (p. 153)
- Is any aspect of an emotional syndrome necessary to the emotion's appearance?
(p.153 & 156)
- Why are emotional syndromes polythetis? (p. 154)
- How is an emotion an action in a social role (p. 154 &
- How is social constructivism related to the cognitive tradition? (p. 155)
- How are emotions learned? (p. 154 & 166-169)
- How does our experience and construction of emotions as passions help us
fulfill our social roles? (p. 156 - 159)
- Why is it wrong to confuse anger with aggression? (p. 160)
- How does anger help build relationships? (p. 162 & 163)
- How is fear connected to our social values? (p. 164 & 165)
- What is Harre's argument that there are culturally diverse emotions? (p.
- Emotion talk is never simply about emotions. Why? (p. 168)
- How do Solomon Islanders view emotions differently from Americans? What
does this say about the scientific construction of emotions as being about
the feelings of internal states? (p. 169 &170)
- How do the evaluation and potency dimension show that there is some similarity
in emotions at an abstract level? (p. 170)
- Why does the social constructivist critique of emotion make it harder to
identify basic emotions (or what we might mean by saying an emotion is basic)?
(p. 173 -175)
- Why might crying help men to be perceived as attractive to women in our
society? (p. 180)
This chapter is about the possibility of finding an overarching theory of emotion
that would incorporate all four perspectives. Cornelius first takes us on a
tour of anger and fear, two more clearly "biological" emotions and
then looks at the research on love and hope, two more social emotions. He concludes
by suggesting that our appraisals of situations may be the key to pulling the
disparate perspectives together since they connect our understanding ofthe environment
(both social and physical) to our responses to it.
- Why might the different traditions in emotional research be incommensurable?(p.185)
- Give an example of how "the facts" change over time in scientific
research. (p. 185)
- In each review of the four traditions' approach to fear, anger, love, and
hope, identify which aspects of the emotion each tradition emphasizes, and
note which traditions have more to say about which emotions. (pp. 189 - 208).
- How is understanding emotions like understanding eating? (p. 211)
- Why does Cornelius see the cognitive persoective as the link that will pull
together the four perspectives? (p. 212).
Chapter 3: Attraction
- "We are attracted to those others whose presence is rewarding to us."
(p. 68). Can you think of a situation in which this might not be true?
- Why would proximity make it more likely one would find friends? What effect
does proximity have on our feelings for those we dislike? (p. 68 - 71)
- Does absence make the heart grow fonder? (p. 70) What might be the conditions
under which it would? (on your own here).
- In what respects do we expect a beautiful stranger to be wonderful? In what
respect does "what is beautiful is good" not work? (p. 72)
- What effects do attractiveness have on salary? Why might this be so? (p.
- Is there agreement across ethnic groups in what is attractive? (p. 73)
- What makes for beautiful female and male faces? (p. 73-74)
- Why would average faces be more attractive? (p. 74)
- What is the waist-to-hip ratio and which ones are prefered for men and women?
(p. 74 & 75)
- What evidence suggests that our judgments of physical attractiveness are
influenced by our evolutionary heritage? (p. 75)
- What evidence supports the influence of culture & environment on our
perceptions of beauty? (p. 75 & 76)
- What matters most for both men and women in terms of initial attraction?
How does self-monitoring interact with this? (p. 76 & 77)
- How does physical attractiveness change the experience of those who possess
it? (p. 78 & 79)
- What is the matching principle? Why does it work? (p. 80-82)
- What kind of similarity helps people be attracted to each other? (p. 83
- How might mis-matches in romantic pairs actually be based on the matching
principle? (p 85-87)
- How does the importance of role, value, and stimulus change over time? How
does this modify how we think of similarity and complementarity over time
in a relationship? (p. 87 - 89)
- How and when does dissimilarity influence relationships? (p. 89 & 90)
Chapter 5: Communication
- Who is John Gottman and why should you care? (p. 125 & 126)
- What is the visual dominance ratio and how does it change a relationship?
(p. 130) How would dominant gaze differ from romantic gaze? (on your own here)
- What are the differences between the intimate, personal, and social zone?
- When might adults like to be talked to with baby talk? (p. 132)
- How do we know it is the male's nonverbal sensitivity that is more crucial
in a relationship? (p. 133 & 134)
- Is it skill or motivation that determine nonverbal sensitivity? (p. 134
- How do status difference and gender differences in nonverbal behavior overlap?
(p. 136 & 137)
- How do superficial and intimate self-disclosure change over time in a relationship
(in terms of both amount and reciprocity)? (p. 138 & 139)
- Why would we like people more if we self-disclose to them? (p. 143 and your
- How do male and female conversation differ from each other? Are these sex
or gender differences? (p. 144 - 146)
- How are off-beam, mindreading, yes-butting, criticism-contempt-defensiveness,
stonewalling, and belligerence related to John Gottman? (p. 148 & 149)
- List three skills that help produce better communication in relationships
(p 149 - 152)
Chapter 6: Interdependency
- Satisfaction = (Rewards - Costs) - Comparison level. Explain. (p. 158 -
- CLalt determines why people stay in relationships where they are unhappy.
How? (p. 159 & 160)
- How are investments in the current relationship related to CLalt? (p. 180)
- Make sure you understand the 6 relationship types pictures on page 162.
- How does the principle of lesser interest relate to the CLalts of the people
in a relationship? (p. 163)
- How do comparison levels change over time? (p. 164 & 165)
- Was the change in divorce rates after WW II and in the 1970s a function
of changes in CL or CLalt? (on your own here)
- Explain the differences in the two charts on p. 168 (note that our friend
Gottman is at work here again).
- Draw the average trajectory of marital satisfaction. Explain its origin
and trajectory (p. 171 - 174)
- How does the arrival of a baby-bundle-of-joy effect satifaction with a marriage?
- What is the difference between an exchange and a communal relationship?
(p. 175 &176)
- Whay would overbenefit be uncomfortable? Is this always true? (p. 177 -
- What differences in the structure of commitment are there between men, women,
and heterosexuals and homosexuals? (p. 182)
- What different kinds of commitment are there. Are each of them structured
according to the figure on p. 182?
Chapter 8: Love
- Make sure you understand how the three aspect of Sternberg's triangular
theory of love combine to form the eight different forms of love he lists.
(p 221 ff.)
- What role does physical arousal play in romantic love? (p. 225 ff.)
- What limits are there on the misattribution of arousal? (p. 227)
- What cognitive components are involved in passionate love? (p. 229 ff.)
- How does the "passion" of passionate love help legitimize the
social role of "star-struck lover"? (refer back to the emotion text)
- What is companionate love and why is it important in long-term relationships?
(p. 232 & 233)
- Be able to talk about the two, three, or four different attachment styles
and how they influence ways of being in love. (p 235 ff. and lecture)
- How do the four attachment styles help define two dimensions of attachment?
- Explain the changes in score on Rubin's love scale over time for arranged
and love-based marriages (p. 242)
Chapter 9: Sexuality
- On which columns on page 251 is there substantial agreement across countries
on sexual practices? Disagreement?
- Why would the importance of dating to a person be a good predictor of the
likelihood of premarital sexual activity? (p. 253)
- What are two explanations for why sexual activity in a couple decreases
as they age? (p. 254 ff). What does this have to do with Calvin Coolidge?
- How does frequency of sex vary across heterosexual, gay and lesbian couples
over time? (p. 255)
- Compare values of the chart on page 257 with the sexual attitudes of various
countries shown on page 251. Given the values regarding extra-relationship
sex in both studies, would you predict that there would there be less opposition
to lesbian relationships than to gay relationships in the US? If so, why?
- Give four reasons why a great deal of high risk sex still occurs in the
US, even among well educated young people. (p. 260 ff). Why is this a social
- Does having sex more frequently in a relationship cause one to be more sexually
satisfied in that relationship? (p. 264)
- How is the sex-to-arguments ration related to Gottman's 5:1 ratio? (p. 265)
- Does sexual interaction influence relationship satisfaction? How? (p. 265)
- How is not saying no a way of saying yes? (p. 270)
- Why might there be a better subjective quality of sexual experience among
homosexual couple than among heterosexual couples? (p. 271)
- How do men and women differently interpret the sexual availability or interest
of others? (p. 271)
- "Women might be more likely to perceive sexual agression in a partner's
behavior." Why might this be so, and how would it account for the gender
difference in sexual agression statistics? (p. 272). Would it account for
all the difference in these statistics?
- Why is is difficult to disentangle issues of power and violence from those
of miscommunication (p. 273)
Chapter 11: Power
- What is social power? (p. 308)
- What is the principle of least interest? How does it work? (p. 310) How
might it be related to CLalt?
- Give examples of six (6) different kinds of power in a relationship. (p.
312). How might this be related to the principle of least interest? (on your
- Why might husbands with more socio-economic resources have less power in
relationship? (p. 312)
- Are all of the different kinds of power in relationships equally exchangable
with each other? (p. 314 & 315)
- What risks do women face when trying to exert influence on others? (p. 316
- How do men and women differ in how they use and respond to power in heterosexual
relationships? (p. 318 & 319) How is this effect complicated by adding
- Does using indirect power strategies in a relationship cause one to be less
satisfied in that relaitonship? (p. 320)
- What is the difference between implementation and orchestration power? (p.
320 & 321)
- What is the powerlessness bias? (p. 322 & 323)
- You chance to question the author's assertion: Is it true that "the
way men and women respond to female dominance is a sensitive measure of the
the degree of gender equality in a society"? (p. 323 & 324)
- Why does random pairings of "husband-wife pairs" serve as a check
on the influence of acceptance of stereotypes of power in relationships? (p.
Chapter 12: Conflict & Violence
- What is an "enemyship"? (p. 336)
- How do attributions differ between happy and unhappy couples? (p. 341 ff)
How are they causally related to satisfaction?
- What are the problems with threats? (p. 342)
- How does the conflict-structure hypothesis explain the disproportionate
gender ratio in demand/withdraw patterns in conflict? (p. 343 & 344)
- How do exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect relate to passive, active, destructive,
and constructive responses to negative behvaior on the part of the partner?
(p. 345 ff)
- What predicts the likelihood of accomodating responses in a conflict? (p.
346 & 347)
- How do volitiles, validators, and avioder differ from hostiles? (p. 347
- How do avoiders resolve problems in their relationship? (p. 350)
- What kinds of fights are good for relaitonships? (p. 351 ff)
- Explain the odd and complicated effects in gender differences in couple
violence. (p. 356 ff)
- Why does the patriarchal terrorism theory not explain violence among gay
and lesbian couples? (p. 359)
Chapter 13: Dissolution & Loss
- What is the refined divorce rate and why is it a useful measure? (p. 371)
- How do barriers to leaving explain the results in the table on page 373?
- "When anything lasts a longer time, it also has a greater possibility
of breaking down." Explain how this is relevant to increases in the divorce
rate in the US (p. 372)
- How do the independence hypothesis and the stabilization hypothesis explain
likelihood of divorce? (p. 375).
- Explain the vulnerability-stress-adaptation model of marriage. (p. 380 ff)
- Describe the four different types of ex-spouses. (p. 388)
- Describe the parental loss, parental stress, and parental conflict models
of the effect of divorce on children. (p. 389 & 390)
Chapter 15: Therapy
- What are the benefits and dangers of self-help books on relationships? (p.
- What is the loneliness business? (p. 425)
- In what way are gay and lesbian relationships different in relationship
maintaining strategies? (p. 432 & 433)
- Do premarital or marital enrichment programs work? (p. 436)
- What is the difference between efficacy and effectiveness research on marital
therapy? (p. 449 & 450)