A BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SUKUMA AND NYAMWEZI CULTURE AND SOCIETY

Joseph L. Mbele
St. Olaf College

    I have been compiling this bibliography in the course of research on the folklore of the Sukuma and Nyamwezi of Tanzania, which I began in 1993. This was part of my research on Tanzania's Epic Folklore, which was funded by Earthwatch, an affiliate of the Center for Field Research, based in Massachussetts.

    The Sukuma and Nyamwezi, who are often assumed to be essentially the same people, are among the most well-studied of Tanzania's ethnic groups. For over a hundred years, there has been a continuous stream of books, articles, manuscripts, theses and dissertations on this group in various languages, but notably in Swahili, English, German, French and Sukuma. These writings cover the history, culture, economic and social life of these people.
    My focus in this bibliography is on folklore and culture in general. I have therefore included works on subjects such as language.
    Some of the works I have included in this bilbiography may not strike other people as belonging in it. The Sukuma and Nyamwezi may safely be considered close enough to be discussed together, but I have included entries on neighbouring groups such as the Kara and the Kerewe, who live on islands in Lake Victoria. I think they have enough in common with the Sukuma to warrant their inclusion in this bibliography. Such choices are difficult for anybody trying to create a bibliography of this nature.
    There are materials I have not included in this bibliography, for example sections in various books, most of which I probaby do not even know about. There are also typescripts and manuscripts which I have not even heard about. It is more than likely that such materials exist, in such places as the White Fathers' Archives in Rome, Oxford House in England, and perhaps in Canada as well, since the priests who set up the Sukuma Museum at Bujora, near Mwanza, came from Canada. Though this is a rather comprehensive bibliography for the period it covers, I know that some more work needs to be done to make it even better.
    I have arranged the entries alphabetically by author. I know that other people might have preferred a division into books, articles, dissertations and other categories. I also know that an index might have pleased many people as well.
    In preparing this bibliography, I have greatly benefitted from Harold Scheub's Bibliography of African Oral Narrative,  R.G. Abraham's bibliography in his The Peoples of Greater Unyamwezi: Tanzania, pp. 81-89, and Michael McCall's, "Bibliography of Usukuma," Africana Journal, X, 2 (1979), pp. 99-119, p. 218-232.
    I am grateful to all the people who have assisted me in this project. These include Connie Gunderson and Trish Lewis of the Rolvaag Library of St. Olaf College, Emilie Ngo-Nguidjol of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Memorial Library,  librarians at the University of Minnesota's Wilson Library, Josephine Yambi, a graduate student at the University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, and Elias Songoyi of the University of Dar es Salaam. My special gratitude goes to Earthwatch and St. Olaf College for supporting my research.
 

Abrahams, R.G. The People of Greater Unyamwezi, Tanzania (Nyamwezi, Sukuma Sumbwa, Kimbu, Konongo). London: International African Institute, 1967.

__________. The Political Organization of Unyamwezi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

__________. The Nyamwezi Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

__________. "Kahama Township, Western Province of Tanganyika," in Social Change in Modern Africa, ed. A. Southall, London, 1961. pp. 242-53.

__________. "Someaspects of Nyamwezi witch beliefs." East African Institute of Social Research Conference Papers (June 1958).

__________. "The Influence of Swahili culture in Nyamwezi." East African Institute of Social Research Conference Papers (January, 1959).

__________. "Neighbourhood Organization: a major Sub-system among the Northern Nyamwezi," Africa, XXXV, 2 (1965) 168-86.

__________. "Succession to the Chiefship in Northern Unyamwezi," in Jack Goody, ed. Successsion to High Office, Cambridge Papers in Social Anthropology, 4 (1966) 

__________. "The Political Incorporation of Non-Nyamwezi Immigrants among the Nyamwezi of Tanzania," in African Society, ed. R. Cohen and J. Middleton, Northwestern University Press, 1967.

__________. "Time and Village Structure in Northern Unyamwezi," Africa, 47, 4 (1977), 372-385.

Alexander, Chief. "A History of the Wazinza," Mambo Leo (Dar es Salaam), 1927-28.

Augustiny, Julius, "Sukuma-Texte, gesammelt und übersetzt," Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen, XIV, (1923-24), 1-43, 153-189. 

__________. "Laut und Formenlehre der Sukuma-Sprache," Mitteilungen der Seminar für Orientalischen Sprachen, XXXII, 3 (1929), pp. 93-157.

Basset, Réne Marie Joseph, Contes popularies d'Afrique, Paris, 1903. (Contains 162 African narratives, including 1 Sukuma and 1 Nyamwezi)

Batibo, Herman M. "A New Approach to Sukuma Tone." In Studies in African Linguistics, Los Angeles, 1976, 241-257.

__________. "Le Kisukuma, langue Bantu de Tanzanie: philologie et morphologie," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Paris, 1976.

__________. "La fonction expressive des phonemes en Kisukuma (Tanzania), Afrique et Langage (Paris)," 8 (1977), p. 37-43.

Bax, S.N. "Early C.M.S. Missions at Busilima and Usambiro," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 7 (1939), 39-55.

Beier, Ulli, The Origin of Life and Death: African Creation Myths, London, 1966. Includes 1 Nyamwezi narrative.

Bennett, Tina L. "Tonally Irregular Verbs in Sukuma Tone," In Studies in Bantu Tonology, Los Angeles, 1976, 287-319. 

Berlin: Seminar für orentalischen sprachen. "Lieder und Sangesweisen und Geschichten derWanyamwezi," MSOS, IV, 3 (1901) 45-62.

Betbeder, P. "The Kingdom of Buzinza," Journal of World History, 13, 4 (1971), 736-760.

Bjerke, S. "The High God of Among the Zinza of Northwestern Tanzania, " Numen [Leiden] 16, 3 (1960), 186-210.

__________. The Bacwezi Complex and the Other Spirit Cults of the Zinza of Northwestern Tanzania, University of Oslo, Religionshistorik Institutt (1975).

Blohm, Wilhelm. Die Nyamwezi, Land und Wirtschaft,Hamburg 1: Friederichsen, De Gruyter & Co. M.B.H,1931

Blokland, Henny W. Two Nyamwezi texts: An exercise in translation and understanding. M.A. thesis, University of Leiden, 1987.

Bohrenz, Wolfgang. Beiträge zur materiallen Kultur der Nyamwezi. Hamburg, 1940..

Bosch, F. Les Banyamwezi, peuple de l'Afrique Orientale, Munster: Anthropos Bilbiothek, 1930.

__________. "Schöpfungslegende der Wanyañwezi," Bibliotheca Africana, III (1929), 77-85.

__________. "Etwas zur Genesis des Kilwana." Bibliotheca Africana, IV, 1 (1930), 31-45.

__________. "Contribution a l'etude des sacrifices," Grand Lacs, vol. 55 (1938-39).

__________. "Le culte des ancêtres chez les Banyangwezi," Anthropos, 20 (1925) 200-9

__________. "Totemismus, Exogamie und Mutterrecht der Banyangwezi," Anthropos, 24 (1929), 273-9

__________. "Die Urgeschichte der Mensch nach den Überlieferung der Wanyamwesi," Pastor Bonus (Trier), XLI, 1 (1930), 41-5.

__________. Kinyamwei-Deutsch, A-I, ms. n.d. Rome: White Fathers.

Brandstrom, Per. The agro-pastoral dilemma: underutilizatiion or overexploitation of land among the Sukuma of Tanzania. Uppsala, Sweden: African Studies Programme, Department of Cultural Anthropology, University of Uppsala, 1985

Broyon-Mirambo, P. "Description of Unyamwesi, the territory of King Mirambo, and the best route thither from the east coast," Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 22 (1877-8), 28-36

Burgt, J.M.M. "Zur Entvölkerungsfrage Unjamwesis Ussumbwas," Koloniale Rundschau (1913), p. 705-28, (1914), p. 24-7.

Burton, R.F. The Lake Regions of Central Africa, London, vol. 1 (1860), pp. 313-412; vol. II (1860),pp. 1-33, 155-222.

Busse, Joseph. "Kimbu-sprachproben," Afrika und Übersee, XXXVII, 4 (1953), 183-6

Campbell, Horace. "Popular Resistance in Tanzania: Lessons from the Sungu Sungu," Utafiti, IX, 2 (1987), pp. 32-58.

Capus, A. "Contes, chants et proverbes des Basumbwa dans l'Afrique orientale," Zeitschrift für Afrikanische und Oceanische sprachen, III (1897), 358-81.

__________. "Eine Missionreise nach Uha und Urundi." Petermann's Mitteilungen, 44 (1898).

__________. Grammaire de Shi-sumbwa," Zeitchschrift für Afrikanische und Oceanische Sprachen (1898) 1-123.

__________. Dictionnaire Shisumbwa-français (1901)

__________. Grammar of the Wakonongo Language, n.d. (in Dar es Salaam Museum).

Carney, J.P. "The History of the Functional Structure of the Maryknoll Mission in Musoma and Shinyanga," Ph.D. Dissertation, St. John's University (1973)

Carnochan, F.G. and Hans C. Adamson, Out of Africa. New York 1937) (Life story of Kalola, head of the powerful snake guild).

Chaplin, J.H. "The Prehistoric Rock Art of the Lake Victoria Region," Azania, 9 (1974) 1-50.

Chenya, Fr. Hendricks, "Chiefs of Busumabu," Lumuli, 9 (1958), 3

__________. "Our Chiefdoms," Lumuli, April 4 (1962)

__________. "Our Villages," Lumuli, March 15 (1963)

Clements, D. "The Research Committee at Bujora," TNR, 81/82 (1977), 75-78.

Cohen, D.W. "A Survey of Interlacustrine Chronology," Journal of African History, 11, 2 (1970) 177-201.

Collinson, J.D.H. Witchcraft and sorcery amongst the Wanyamwezi. Ph.D. dissertation, Oxford, 1974.

Cory, Hans. The Ntemi: the traditional rites in connection with the burial,election, enthronement and magic powers of a Sukuma chief. London, Macmillan, 1951.

__________. Sukuma Law and Custom, with a foreword by J.P.Moffett. London, New York Published for the International African Institute by the Oxford University Press, 1953. 

__________. "Ngoma ya Sheitani," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society, 66 (1936) 209-217

__________. Sukuma Secret Societies (Mwanza). Manuscript, East African Library, University of Dar es Salaam, Cory 191, 1938.

__________. "Sukuma Twin Ceremonies-Mabasa," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 17 (1944), 34-44.

__________. "The Buyeye: A Secret society of snake Charmers in Sukumaland, Tanganyika Territory," Africa, 16, 3 (1946), 160-178

__________. Baswezi (disciples of Lyangombe). Manuscript, East African Library, University of Dar es Salaam, Cory 45, 1949

__________. "The Buswezi," American Anthropologist, 57 (1955), 923-952

__________. Sukuma Songs and Dances, manuscript, East African Library, Dar es Salaam, Cory 192, n.d.

__________. Sukuma dances, manuscript, East African Library, Dar es Salaam, Cory 192, n.d.

__________. Migabo, Manuscript, East African Library, Dar es Salaam, Cory 138, n.d.

__________. "Ntambiko," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 1958.

__________. The indigenous political systemof the Sukuma and proposals for political reform, Eastern Africa Studies, 2 (1954)

__________. "Religious beliefs and practices of the Sukuma/Nyamwezi tribal group," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 54, 1960.

__________. "The Ingredients of Magic Medicines," Africa, XIX, 1(1949), 13-32.

__________. "The People of the Lake Victoria Region," Tanganyika Notes and Records,33 (1952), 22-9.

__________. Wall-painting by Snake Charmers in Tanganyika. London: Faber & Faber, 1953.

__________. Sheria na Kawaida za Wanyamwezi (Nyamwezi Law and Custom), Dar es Salaam (1955).

__________. The Nyamwezi and Sukuma. (Manuscript owned by International Africa Institute), n.d.

Cory, Hans, and N. Masalu. "Place Names in the Lake Province." TNR, 30 (1951), 53-72.

Cotter, Fr. G. Sukuma Proverbs. Nairobi: Beezee Secretarial Services. 1970?

Cottino, Giovanni. Grammaire kinyamwezi: langue "bantu" parlee dans l'AfriqueOrientale, territoire du Tanganyika. Mimeo. Tabora 1914/Rome 1957.

Dahl, E. "Die Tone und Akzente im Kinyamwesi," Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen, 1904, pp. 106-126.

__________. Nyamwesi Wörtebuch. (Abhandlungen des Hamburgischen Kolonialinstituts, 25: Reihe B: Volkerkunde, Kulturgeschichte und Sprachen, 15.) Hamburg: L. Friederichsen, 1915.

__________. "Hundert Rätsel der Wanamwezi," ZKS, III (1912-13), p257-71.

__________. "Einige Beispiele aus dem Nyamwezi fur die Vokal-Assimilation und Konsonanten Assimilation," ZKS, IV (1913-14), 333-5

__________. "Die Verwandtschafts-Bezeichnungen im Namwezi," ZKS, V (1914-15), 331-4

[Dahl, Edmund?]. "Lieder und Sangesweisen und Geschichten der Wanyamwezi." Mitteilungen des Seminars fur Orientalische Sprachen, 4, III (1901), 45-62.

Dale, G. The Peoples of Zanzibar: their customs and beliefs. London, UMCA 1920, 124 S

Decle, L. "Lettre de Bukumbi, 25 sept. 1893." Compte Rendu Soc. Geogr. S. (1894) 14-16

__________. Three Years in Savage Africa. London: Methuen, 1898, chapters 17-18.

de Rosemond, C.C. "Iron Smelting in the Kahama District." Tanganyika Notes and Records, 16 (1943), 79-84.

Desoignies, P. "Die Msalala." In Steinmetz, S.R. Rechtsverhaltnisse von eingeborenen Volkern in Afrika und Ozeanien. Berlin 1903. 268-82.

Diarie de la Mission de M.D. de Kamoga (Bukumbi)." Chronique de la Société des Missionaires d'Afrique, 15 (1895).

Eden, Ake (ed). Basukuma: Kulturglimtar fran Tanzania. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Agency, 1973.

Fairclough, J.L. "History of Itilima," Mwanza Provincial Book.

Fontainas, R. "Dans la famille de M'siri." Revue Coloniale Belge, 35 (1947), 166-70.

Gass, Michel. "Croyances, magie, et superstitions des Bagwe ou Basukuma établis au sud du lac Victoria Nyanza," Annuario dellaPontificio Museo Missioni eEtnologico [Roma] 37 (1973), 385-459.

__________ et al. Le Bagwe, le Bubinza: us et coutumes de Bagwe." Annuario dellla

Pontificio Museo Missioni e Etnologico [Roma], 37 (1973), 325-383

Geneya, G. "Sukumaland: Traditional Values and Modern Leadership." In L. Cliffe (ed.) One Party Democracy: The 1965 Tanzania General Elections. Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1967, p. 186-207.

Goldsmith, John. "On Tone in Sukuma." In Goyvaerts, Didier (ed.). Linguistics Essays in Memory of W. K. Semikenge. Amsterdam: P...1985)

Gorju, Julien, Entre le Victtoria, l'Albert et Edouard: ethnographie de la partie anglaise du Vicariat de l'Uganda, Origines, histoire, religion, coutumes. Rennes: Oberthur, 1920. 372 S.

Grant, J.A. "On Mr. H.M. Stanley's Exploration of the Victoria Nyanza." Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 20 (1875), 34-51.

Gray, Sir J.M. "Arabs on Lake Victoria, Some Revisions." Uganda Journal, 22, 1 (1957), 76-81.

Gunzert, T. "Memoirs of a German District Commissioner in Mwanza." ed. R. Austen, Tanganyika Notes and Records, 66 (1966) 171-179.

Hall, de Z. "The Dance Societies of the Wasukuma as seen in Maswa District," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 1 (1936), pp. 94-6.

__________. "A Bibliography of Ethnographic Literature for Tanganyika Territory," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 7 (1939), 75-83.

Harding, J.R. "Conus Shell Disc Ornaments (Vibangwa) in Africa," JRAI, XCI, 1 (1961), 52-66

Harlow, M.A.B. "The Rock Art of the Lake Victoria Region in its African Context." Azania, 9 (1974), 43-47.

Hartwig, G. W. "Bukerebe, the Church Missionary Society and East African Politics, 1877-1878." Jounal of African History, 1, 2 (1968), 211-232. 

__________. "A Cultural History of Kerebe of Tanzania to 1895," Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1970.

__________. "Oral Traditions Concerning the Early Iron Age in Northwest Tanzania."

African Historical Studies, 4, 1 (1971), 93-114.

__________. The Art of Survival in East Africa: The Kerebe and Long-Distance Trade, 1800-1895. New York: Africana.

Hatchell, G.W. "Vibangwa, a Form of Insignia used in the Eastern Hinterland of Lake Tanganyika," Man, XXVIII, 19 (1928), 19

Hatfield, Colby Ray, "The mfumu in tradition and change: a study of the position of religious practitioners among the Sukuma of Tanzania, East Africa," Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1969.

Heijnen, J.D. "Some Practical Problems Encountered in Social Surveys in Sukumaland." East African Institute for Social Research Conference Paper, 351. Makerere, January 1966.

_________. Development and Education in the Mwanza District (Tanzania). Rotterdam: Bronder, 1968.

Henning, P. A Bibliograhy of Economic and Social material concerning the Four Lake Regions (Mara, Mwanza, Shinyanga and West Lake). Dar es Salaam: Institute of Adult Education and UNESCO Pilot Literacy Project, 1967.

Hermann, H.C. "Kissukuma, Die Sprache der Wassukuma," Mitteilungen des Seminars fur orientalische Sprachen, I (1898), 58ff. 1 Sukuma narrative. 

Higgins, P.M. "Sukuma Fables." Tanganyika Notes and Records,1 (1936) 90-93.

Holmes, C.F. "A History of the Bakwimba of Usukuma, Tanzania from Earliest Times to 1945." Ph.D. Dissertation, Boston University, 1969.

__________. "Zanzibar Influences at the Southern End of Lake Victoria: The Lake Route." African Historical Studies, 4, 3 (1971), 477-504.

Holmes, C.F. and J.M. Kadase Mange. Mfumo ya Bukwimba, African historical studies, 4, 1 (1971).

Holmes, C.F. and R. Austen, "The Precolonial Sukuma," Journal of World History," 14, 2 (1972), 377-405.

Hone, E.D. "Raid," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 2 (1936), 98-100. 

Hornbostel, Erich M. von, Melodya Wasukumska, podlug zpisek Dra.J. Czekanowskiego. --Wasukuma-Melodie, nach der Aufnahme von Dr. J. Czekanowski, Bulletin International de l'Academie des Sciences de Cracovie, Classe de pholologie, Classe d'histoire et de philosophie, (vol? 1910) (p.?)

__________. "Wanyamwezi Gesänge," Anthropos, 4 (1909), pp. 781-800 & 1033-1052.

Huggins, P.M. "Sukuma Fables," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 1 (1936), 80-93.

Hulls, Robert H, "An Assessment of agricultural extension in Sukumaland, western Tanzania," Dar es Salaam:Economic Research Bureau, 1971?

Ikombe, (Ntemi), "The Legend of Nkanda,"trans. Coke, C.M. Tanganyika Notes and Records, 15 (1943), p. 72-5. 

Ishmael, G.C.,"The Babinza," Man, X (1910), pp. 114-117

Itandala, Buluda. "The Establishment of the First Four Babinza States in Usukuma." University of Dar es Salaam, History Department Seminar Paper, 1975. 

__________. "Ilembo, Nkanda and the Girls: Establishing a Chronology of the Babinza," in Chronology, Migration and Drought in Interlacustrine Africa, ed. J.B. Webster, New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1979, pp. 145-173.

__________. "African Response to German Colonialism in East Africa: The Case of Usukuma, 1890-1918," Ufahamu, Jouranl of the African Activist Association, XX, 1 (1992), pp. 3-29.

Jellicoe, M.R. "Voluntary Associations in the Mwanza Area of Tanzania." Nkanga [Makerere University], 4 (1969), 24-29.

Jonsson, Erland. Kinyang'wezi Grammatik. [Tabora: Swedish Free Mission/Svenska Pingstmissionen], [1949].

Juma, Waziri. "The Sukuma Societies for Young Men and Women." Tanganyika Notes and Records, 54 (1960), p. 27-29.

Kaboye, J. Consent in Marriage Among the Sukuma in Relation to the Matrimonial Consent in the Code of Canon Law. Rome: Pontificum Institutum Missionale Scientificum de Propaganda Fide, 1965.

Kabuaye, M.S. "Utani and Related Cultural Institutions of the Sukuma Peoples of Shinyanga." In S.A. Lucas (ed.) Utani Relationships in Tanzania, vol, V [Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam] (1975), 192-272.

Kandt, R. Caput Nili. Berlin: D. Reimer (E.Vohsen), 1904, pp. 216-46. 

Kangwezi, K.D.M.C. "The Relationship Between the Ancestors, Clan Utani and the Land Ownership Among the Sukuma: A Case Study of Nyashimba Community in Shinyanga." In S.A. Lucak (ed.). Utani Relationship in Tanzania, vol. V [Dar es Salaam University] (1975), 273-348.

Kaseka, Ambrosius. La Musique chez les Banyamwezi. Grand Lacs, 55 (1939) 169-175.

__________. [A Grammar of Kiilwaana (Kinyamwezi)]. Tabora, ms. 1953.

Katoke, I.K. "The History of the Pre-colonial States of Northwestern Tanzania: Introduction." Journal of World History, 13, 3 (1971), 512-514.

Kaula, Edna Mason. African Village Folktales, Cleveland, 1968. Twenty narratives, including Sukuma.

Kazi, S. "A Note on Sukuma Utani." In S.A. Lucas (ed.) Utani Relationships in Tanzania, vol. V [Dar es Salaam: University of Dar esSalaam](1975), 178-191.

Kerner, Donna. "Witches, Cows, Thieves and Party Politics: An Examination of the Sungu Sungu Movement," n.d; n.p.

Knudsen, B. "Dance Societies: The Voluntary Work Associations of the Sukuma." Tanzania Notes and Records, 81/82 (1977), 66-74

Koenen, Fr.M. "New Kisukuma Grammar of the Diocese of Mwanza," (mimeo, n.d.)

Kohler, J. "Das Banturecht in Ostafrika," Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft, 15 (1902), 1-83.

Kollmann, P. The Victoria Nyanza. London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1899.

Koritschoner, H. (later Cory, H.) "Some East African Native Songs," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 4, (1937) 51-64.

__________. "Details of a Native Medical Treatment." Tanganyika Notes and Records, 2 (1936), 67-71.

Kyewalyanga, Francis-Xavier Sserufusa. "Traditional religion, custom, and Christianity in East Africa: as illustrated by the Ganda with reference to other African cultures (Acholi, Banyarwanda, Chagga, Gikuyu, Luo, masai, Sukuma, Tharaka, etc....)"and reference to Islam. Hohenschaftlarn: Renner, 1976

La Fontaine, J. "The Zinza." In A. Richards (ed.) East African Chiefs. London: Faber and Faber, 1960, 195-211.

Lang, G.O. "A Plan for the Study of a People Prior to Launching a Local Program of Socio-Economic Betterment." In J.J. Considine (ed.) The Missionaries' Role in Socio Economic Betterment. Newman Press, 1960. 

__________. "A Sociologists' Viewpoint on Development under the Range Act." UNDP/SF Livestock Development Project, Sukumaland. 1970.

__________. "Modernization and Themes in east Africa through Cultural Continuity: The Case of the Sukuma." In J. Mahar, et al. (eds.) Themes in Culture and Other Essays in Honor of Morris E. Opler. University of Philippines, 1971.

__________. "Socio-Psychological Factors and Strategies in the Introduction of Modern Ranching in Sukumaland." UNDP/SF Livestock Development Project, No. 279. Receptivity Study No. 1. Preliminary Report. 1971.

__________. "Sukuma of Northern Tanzania: Innovations and Communication, with Special Reference to Family Planning." In A. Molnos (ed.) Cultural Source Materials for Population Planning in East Africa> vol. II: Innovations and Communication. Nairobi: EAPH (1972), 213-223.

__________. "Sukuma of Northern Tanzania." In A. Molnos (ed.). Cultural Source Materials for Population Planning in East Africa. vol. III: Beliefs and Practices Nairobi: EAPH, 1973, 224-233.

Lang, G.O. and M.B. Lang. "Problems of Social and Economic Change in Sukumaland, Tanganyika." Anthropological Quarterly, 35, 2 (1962), 86-101.

Lang, G.O. and P.F. McLoughlin (eds.?) Recent Research in Sukumaland: Essays in Social, Economic and Political Development. n.p.; n.d.

Lang, G.O. et al. Sukumaland Cooperatives as Mechanisms of Change." In D. Brokensha and M.Pearsall (eds.) The Anthropology of Development in Sub-Saharan

Africa. Lexington: Society for Applied Anthropology, Monograph No. 10 (1969): 48-63.

Lanning, E.C. "The Identity of the Bachwezi." Uganda Journal, 22 (1958).

Liebenow, J.G. "Chieftainship and Local Government in Tanganyika: A Study of Institutional Adaptation." Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1955.

__________. "Responses to Planned Political Change in a Tanganyika Tribal Group." American Political Science Review, 50, 2 (1956): 442-461.

__________. "The Chief in Sukuma Local Government." Journal of African Administration, 11, 2 (1959), 84-92.

__________. "A Tanganyika Federation: The Sukuma." In A.I. Richards (ed.) East African Chiefs. London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 229-259.

Lodhi, Abdulaziz Y. Verbal Extensions in Bantu: the case of Swahili and Nyamwezi. Uppsala Universitet: Inst. for Afro-Asiatiska Sprak. ms. 1985.

Maganga, Clement and Thilo C. Schadeberg. Kinyamwezi: Grammar, Texts, Vocabulary Koln; Rudiger Koppe Verlag, 1992.

Maganga, Clement and Derek Nurse, Nyamwezi. In D. Nurse, Description of sample Bantu languages of Tanzania, (African Languages/langues Africaines, 5 1) 1979, 57-66.

Malcolm, Donald Wingfield. Sukumaland: an African people and their country study of land use in Tanganyika. London, New York, published for the International African institute by the Oxford University Press, 1953.

Masanja, Patrick. "Some Notes on the Sungu Sungu Movement," Department of Sociology Seminar, University of Dar es Salaam, March 8, 1984.

Masanja, P. and S. Mesaki. "Witchcraft Homicides in Sukumaland," Department of Sociology, University of Dar es Salaam, November 1983.

Mayala, Fr. Anthony, et. al. "Sukuma Expressions of Traditional Religion in Life," Kipalapala Seminary, 1971.

McLoughlin, Peter. An Economic History of Sukumaland, Tanzania, to 1964: field notes and analysis (Fredericton, N.B. Y1972) University of Wisconsin Land Tenure Center HC557 T32 M3

Meinhof, Carl. Linguistische Studien in Ostafrika, 3: Nyamwezi. Mitteilungen des Seminars fur Oriientalische Sprachen, 7, III (1903).

Millroth, Berta. Lyuba: traditional religion of the Sukuma. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wilksells, 1965.

Mors, O. Geschichte der Bahinda des alten Kyamtwara-Reiches am Victoria-Nyanza, Anthropos, 50, 4-6 (1955), pp. 702-714.

Mpandi, P. "Chiefs of Bukwimba," Lumuli, 1 (7), 4 (1950).

Muller, F. Grammatik der Kinyamwesi-Sprache. Salzburg. St. Petrus Claver-Sodalitat fur die Afrikanischen Missionen, 1904.

Mkongola, N.E. "Mabadiliko ya Dhamira Katika Ngoma ya Wigashe," Unpublished, Department of Kiswahili, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1980

Ndezi, Paulo Enoka. "Changing Patterns of Multilingualism: A Case Study ofIgunga in Tabora, Tanzania." Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, 35, 2 (1982), 170-181.

Nhonoli, Aloysius, M. "Ancient Marriage Ceremonies in Wilwana." Makerere, II, 6 (1948), 141-5

Nicholson, M.R. "Legal Change in Tanzania as Seen Among the Sukuma," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1968.

Nobel, C. "Voluntary Associations of the Basukuma," Ph.D. Dissertation, Catholic University of America.

Nwezi narratives, in Nwezi with a German translation. (from Scheub's bibliography).

Pedersen, G.D. "Traditional Sukuma Curers: The Bafumu." Tanzania Notes and Records, 81/82 (1972), 62-65.

Pedler, F.J. "Joking Relationship in Usukuma," Africa, 13 (1940), 170-173.

Pender-Cudlipp, P. "Encyclopaedic Informants and Early Interlacustrine History." International Journal of African Historical Studies, 6, 3 (1973), 198-210.

Pfister, G.F. "Marriage Among the Central Basukuma." Anthropological. Quarterly, 35, 2 (or 3?) (1962), 134-142.

Reichard, P. "Die Wanjamuesi." Zetischrift der Gessellsch. fur Erdk. zu Berlin, 24 (1889) 246-60, 304-31.

__________. "Die Wanjamuesi." Deutsche Kolonialzeitung (1890), 228-230, 239-41, 262-5, 276-8.

Reid, M.B. "Persistence and Change in the Health Concepts and Practices of the Sukuma of Tanzania, East Africa," Ph.D. dissertation, Catholic University of America, 1969.

Revington, T.M. "Concerning the Banangoma and Basumba Batale Societies of the Bukwimba Wasukuma." Tanganyika Notes and Records, 5 (1938), 60-62.

Richardson, I. "A Vocabulary of Sukuma,"African Language Studies, VII, (1966), pp. 1-79.

__________. "The Role of Tone in the Structure of Sukuma." London, SOAS: Doctoral Dissertation, 1959.

__________. "'Displaced Tones' in Sukuma." Papers in African Linguistics, Edmonton, 1971, p. 219-227.

Roberts, A. "A Bibliography of Primary Sources for Tanzania, 1799-1899," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 73 (1974), pp. 65-92.

Roth, Warren, "Three cooperatives and a credit union as examples of culture change among the Sukuma of Tanzania." Microform 1966. Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, Africana micro Project Monographs. [Ph.D. Dissertation, Catholic University of America.]

__________. "The Wasukuma of Tanganyika: An Annotated Bibliography," Anthrop. Quarterly, 34, 3 (1961), 158-163.

Rounce, N.V. "Ingereza Ng'wana Sweya: His Own Story and His Agricultural Pracices." East African Agricultural Journal, 5 (1939), 211-215.

Saltman, M. The Social Structure of the Sukuma of Northern Tanganyika. Israel: Rehovon, 1963.

Schaans, Fr. van der. "Histoire légendaire de Ntuzu," typescript, [n.d.] 

__________. "Tradition Orale de Mw. Magulyati, & Mw. Ibelenge,"Manuscript, Gula, 1954.

__________. "Histoire de Mwagala,"

__________. "Question Ethnologique," Gula, 1954.

Schadeberg, Thilo C. "Tone and History of Nyamwezi Verb Forms with complex Final Tones," Afrika und Ubersee, 72, 1 (1989), 33-42.

__________. High Tone Shift in Kinyamwezi. In Proceedings of the 17 Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society, 1991.

Schanne-Raab, Gertrud Maria. Social Stratification and the diffusion of innovations among the Sukuma of Tanzania. Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado, 1974.

Schilde, W. "Die Afrikanischer Hoheitzeichen." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 61 (1929), 46-152.

Schoenberger, Paul. Names for "God" known and used by the Wanyamwezi. Anthropos, 56 (1961) 947-949.

Seidel, August. Das Kisukuma. Grammatische Skizze nebst Kisukuma-Deutsch und Deutsch Kisukuma Vokabularien. In Werther, C.W. Zum Victoria Nyassa. Berlin, (1894)pp. 2-18

__________. Grundriss des Kinyamwezi." (Appendix to C.W. Werther: Die mitteleren Hochlander des nordlichen Deutsche-Ostafrika. Berlin. 1898, 456-89).

Senior, H.S. "Sukuma Salt Caravans to Lake Eyasi," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 6 (1938), pp. 87-90. 

__________. Sukuma-English Word List (on cards) Mwanza, White Fathers, 1935-38

__________. "The Sukuma Homestead," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 12 (1939), pp. 42-44.

Smith, H.C. "The Sukuma System of Grazing Rights." East African Agricultural Journal, IV, 2&9 (1938).

Shorter, A. "Ukimbu and the Kimbu Chiefdoms of Southern Unyamwezi." Unpublished mimeograph: a short preliminary report of fieldwork in progress, 1966.

__________. "Interlacustrine Chieftainship in Embryo? A Discussion of the Origins of Political Institutions in Western Tanzania." Tanzania Notes and Records, 72 (1973), 37-50.

Songoyi, Elias M. "The Artist and the State in Tanzania: A Study ofTwo Singers: Kalikali and Mwinamila." M.A. Dissertation University of Dar es Salaam, 1988.

Southon, E.J. "The History , Country and People of Unyamwezi," Southon to L.M.S., 28, iii, 1880, L.M.S. Archives.

Spellig, F. "Uber Geheimbunde bei den Wanyamwesi." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 59 (1927), 62-6.

__________. "Die Wanyamwesi." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 59 (1927), 201-57.

Stanley, H.M. Through the Dark Continent, 2 volumes. New York: Harper & Bros., 1878.

__________. In Darkest Africa. London: Sampson Low, 1890.

Steere, E. Collections for a Handbook of the Nyamwezi Language as Spoken in Unyanyembe. 1882.

Stern, R. "Eine Kinyamwezi-Grammatik." MSOS, IX, 3 (1906), 129-58.

Struck, B. "Begleitworte zur Dialektkarte von Unyamwsi." Mitteilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten, 23 (1910), 101-10

Stuhlmann, Franz. "Elf Wanyamwési-Fabeln," Mit Emin Pascha in Herz von Afrika. Berlin, 1894.

Sukuma Museum Archives. "Early History of Mission Work Among the Basukuma." Mwanza, Tanzania. Typescript. n.d.

__________. "History of Kageye." Mwanza, Tanzania. Typescript, n.d.

__________. "Les Basukuma." Mwanza, Tanzania. Typescript, n.d.

__________. The Meaning of the Name Ng'wanza (Mwanza)." Mwanza, Tanzania. Typescript. n.d.

__________. "The Supreme Being and Other Spirits." Sukuma Customs File. Mwanza, Tanzania. Typescript. n.d.

Swantz, M-L. The Religious and Magical Rites Connected with the Life-Cycle of the Women in Some Bantu Ethnic Groups of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, n.p., 1966

Tanner, R[alph] E.S. "Archery Amongst the Sukuma," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 35 (1953), 63-65.

__________. "A Series of Rock Paintings near Mwanza." Tanganyika Notes and Records, 34 (1953), 62-67.

__________. "Law Enforcement by Communal Action in Sukumaland," Journal of African Administration, VII, 4 (1955), 159-165.

__________. "Maturity and Marriage Among the Northern Basukuma of Tanganyika." African Studies, 14 (1955), 123-133; 159-170.

__________. "The Sexual Mores of the Basukuma." International Journal of Sexology, 8 (1955), 238-241.

__________. "An Introduction to the Northern Basukuma's Idea of the Supreme Being." Anthropological Quarterly. 29 (1956), 45-56.

__________. "An Introduction to the Spirit Beings of the Northern Basukuma." Anthropological Quarterly, 29 (1956), 69-81

__________. "The Sorcerer in Northern Sukumaland." Southwest Journal of Anthropology, 12 (1956), 437-443.

__________. "Ancestor Propitiation," Africa, 7 (1958)

__________. "Hysteria in Sukuma Medical Practice." Africa, 25 (1955), 274-279.

__________. The Witch Murders in Sukumaland. A Sociological commentary. The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. Uppsala, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Solna Seelig, 1970.

__________. Transition in African Beliefs: Traditional Religion and Christian Change: A Study in Sukumaland, Tanzania, East Africa. New York: Maryknoll Publications, 1967.

__________. "A Prehistoric Culture in Ng'wanza," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 6 (1957)

__________. "The Installation ofSukuma chiefs in Mwanza district, African Studies, 16, (1957), 197-209.

__________. "Ancestor Propitiation Ceremonies in Sukumaland," Africa, 28 (1958), 225-231.

__________. "Sukuma Ancestor Worship and its Relationship to Social Structure." Tanganyika Notes and Records, 50 (1958), 52-62.

__________. "The Spirits of the Dead." Anthropological Quarterly., 32 (1959), 108-124.

__________. "Christianity in Usukuma, Part I." African Ecclesiastical Review, 10, 4 (1968), 383-390.

__________. "Christianity in Usukuma, Part II." African Ecclesiastical Review, 11, 2 (1969), 149-158.

__________. "Christianity in Usukuma, Part III: The Christian Who Does Not Practice." African Ecclesiastical Review, 11, 3 (1969), 284-293.

__________. "The Theory and Practice of Sukuma Spirit Mediumship." In J. Middleton and J. H. Beattie (eds.) Spirit Mediumship and Society in Africa. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969, 172-189.

Taylor, B.K. The Western Lacustrine Bantu. Ethnographic Survey of Africa, East Central Africa, Part XIII. Ed. Daryll Forde. London: IAI, 1969.

Tcherkézoff, Serge. Le roi Nyamwezi, la droit et la gauche: Révision comparative des classifications dualistes. Paris: Maison des Sciences de l'Homme and Cambridge University Press, 1983. Trans. by Marin Thom as Dual Classification Reconsidered: Nyamwezi sacred kingship and other examples. New York: Cambridge University Press and Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1987.

__________. "The Expulsion of Illness or the Domestication of the Dead: A Case Study of the Nyamwezi of Tanzania." History and Anthropology, 2, 1 (1985), 59-92.

__________. "Le rituel dans l'ordre des valeurs. Hiérarchie et sacrifice dans les royautés nyamwezi à la fin du XIXe siècle." Thèse de 3e cycle, EHESS, 1981.

__________. Vengeance et hiérarchie, ou comment un roi dot être ourri, in R. Verdier. ed. La vengeance. Paris: Éditions Cujas, 1986.

__________. "Les jumeaux nyamwezi. Efficacité rituelle et changement de niveau." (forthcoming)

Tomecko, D. and J. Tomecko. Sukuma. Bujora, Mwanza: Sukuma Museum, n.d.

Turgeon, s.d. Francais-kinyamwezi. mimeo. n.d. Rome. White Fathers

Turnbull, A.M.D. "History of Uzinza," Mwanza Provincial Book, National Archives of Tanzania.

Tyler, J. "Minor Chiefs in Rusubi Chiefdom, Buzinza." Kampala: East African Institute of Social Research, Conference Papers, 1952.

University College, Dar es Salaam. The Papers of Hans Cory in the Library of the University College, Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam: UCDSM, Library Publication no, 1 (1968).

van der Burgt, J.M. "Von Mwansa nach Ushirombo." Petermann's Mitteilungen, 52 (1906), 121-136.

van Pelt, P. Bantu Customs in Mainland Tanzania. Tabora: Tabora Mission Press, 1971.

van Thiel, P.H. "Buzinza unter der Dynastie der Bahinda." Anthropos, 6 (1911), 497-520.

Varkevisser, C.M. "Some Functions and Characteriztics of the Sukuma Luganda." Tropical Man, 4 (1972), 92-107.

__________. "Sukuma Political History Reconstructed from Traditions of Prominent Nganda." Tropical Man, 4 (1971), 67-91.

__________. "Sukuma of Northern Tanzania." In A. Molnos (ed.) Cultural Source Materials for Population Planning in East Africa. Vol. II: Innovations and Communication. Nairobi: EAPH,1972. p. 224-229

__________. Socialization in a Changing Society: Sukuma Childhood in Rural and Urban Mwanza. The Hague: Center for Study in Educatin in Changing Societies, 1973.

__________. "Sukuma of Northern Tanzania." In A. Molnos (ed.) Cultural Source Materials for Population Planning in East Africa. Vol. III: Beliefs and Practices. Nairobi: EAPH, 1973. 234-248.

Velten, C. Grammatik des Kinyamuesi. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1901.

Verbeken, A. Msiri, Roi du Garaganze. Brussels, 1956.

von Schweinitz, H.H. "Wanyamwezi, Wassukuma, Wasiba und Wakara." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 25 (1893). 477-484.

Webster, J.B. "The Reign of the Gods," in Webster, J.B. Chronology, Migration and Drought in Interlacustrine Africa, New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1979, pp. 124-143.

Welch, Adam E. "Life and Literature of the Sukuma in Tanzania, East Africa," Ph.D. Dissertation, Howard University, 1967.

White Fathers. A l'assaut des pays negres: journal des missionaires d'Alger dans l'Afrique equatoriale. Paris, 1884.

__________. Pres des grand lacs. Lyons, 1885.

Wright, A.C.A. "Maize Names as Indicators of Economic Contact." Uganda Journal, 13 (1949), 61-81. 

__________. "Sociology in Sukumaland." Corona, 5 (1953), 100-103.

__________. "The magical importance of pangolins among the Basukuma," Tanganyika Notes and Records, 36 (1954), 71-72.

Whybrow, C. "Some Sukuma Bird Names." Tanganyika Notes and Records, 25 (1948), 56-62.

Williams, O.G. "Village Organization Among the Sukuma." Man, 35 (1935), 119-120.

Yongolo, W.D. Maisha na desturi ya Wanyamwezi. London, 1956.

Zingg, Joseph. "Croyances & Coutumes des Babinza, Bugwe-Est," Sumve (1932).

Disclaimer