Expository Writing
In 1976 BC (before computers), I prepared
(with Matthew Gaffney of the University of Massachusetts) an Annotated Bibliography of Expository Writing in the Mathematical
Sciences to introduce students and faculty to the many fascinating articles about mathematics and its applications that
appear in sources outside the domain of professonal mathematics publications. This effort helped open my eyes to the complex
issues of mathematical literacy which arise in many areas far removed from the mathematics classroom. Today computer search
engines have made such bibliographies nearly obsolete even as the scope of mathematical content and applications covered in the
expository literature has grown exponentially during the intervening thirty years.
Why Numbers Count
In the mid1990s, scientists who advise the
College Board on the Advanced Placement exams asked mathematicians to help define the nature and level of mathematical or
quantitative literacy appropriate for collegebound students. It immediatley became clear that quantitative literacy was
something different from high school mathematics, yet closely related. One product of this investiagtion is Why Numbers Count: Quantitative Literacy for Tomorrow's
America, published by the College Board in 1997. This volume contains essays and interviews from professionals in
different fields discussing the needs for quantitative literacy from their varied perspectives.
A second product of this investigation is an online resources in quantitative literacy containing links to people, programs, projects, publications. (This resource was
completed in July 1999 but has not been updated since then.)


Mathematics and Democracy
In 1999, with the support from The
Pew Charitable Trusts, the problematic question of numeracy—what mathematics is essential for all
students?—was taken up by the National Council on Education and the Disciplines (NCED) at the Woodrow Wilson Foundation.
As a first step, NCED published Mathematics and
Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy containing a definitional position paper on quantitative literacy followed by a dozen response papers.
Subsequently, in November 2001, NCED joined MAA and MSEB in hosting a national colloquium on quantitative literacy. The
proceedings that I edited in collaboration with Bernard Madison at the University of Arkansas were published in 2003 under the
colloquium title Quantiative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for
Schools and Colleges.
Achieving Quantitative Literacy
These efforts have resulted in a modest movement to
engage faculty in grades 1114 to rethink the relation between objectives and requirements in quantitative and mathematical
reasoning. In 2003 MAA published Quantitative Literacy: Why
Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges, a collection of papers derived from a forum held in December 2001 at the
National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. In 2004, the MAA published Achieving Quantitative Literacy, a synoposis
of issues emerging from this forum, and also established a
Special Interest Group (SIGMAA) on Quantitative Literacy.
Leaders of various QL/QR projects on different campusus have also established a National Numeracy Network to share materials and curricular ideas. A
list of selected Quantitative Literacy
Programs in U.S. colleges and universities is availabe on an MAA website devoted to quantitative literacy.

Related Professional Service
199902 Project Director for Quantitative Literacy, National Council on Education and the Disciplines, Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.
199899 Advisory Committee to Review Mathematics Placement Tests, The Education Trust.
199902 Seminar on Democracy, Diversity, and the Disciplines, Woodrow Wilson Foundation.
199809 Reviewer for SkillsUSA Technical Math Examination, National Vocational Industrial Clubs of America.
199899 Seminar on K16 Education, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
199797 Coorganizer of "Beyond Eighth Grade" workshop, National Council on Research in Vocational Education (NCRVE).
199596 Consulting editor for High School Mathematics at Work, National Academy Press. 