Section 1 of Table Contents
- A. Among the more common bloodborne diseases that you could be
exposed to on the job are non-A hepatitis, non-B hepatitis,
hepatitis B and delta hepatitis, as well as syphilis, malaria
and human immunodeficiency virus. The two most significant are
hepatitis B (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
- 1. HBV
- a. Hepatitis means "inflammation of the liver."
Hepatitis B virus is the major infectious bloodborne
hazard faced by workers on the job. If you become
infected with HBV, you may suffer from flu-like
symptoms so severe that you may require hospitalization
or you may feel no symptoms at all. Your blood,
saliva and other body fluids may be infectious and you
might spread the virus to sexual partners, family
members and even unborn infants. There is a vaccine
available to reduce or eliminate risk of infection.
- 2. HIV
- a. The human immunodeficiency virus attacks the body's
immune system causing the disease known as AIDS, or
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Currently there
is no vaccine to prevent this infection. A person
infected with HIV may carry the virus for several
years without developing symptoms but will eventually
develop AIDS. An infected person may suffer from
flu-like symptoms, fever, diarrhea and fatigue; and
eventually AIDS-related illnesses including
neurological problems, cancer and other opportunistic
infections are easily contracted as the body's ability
to fight off illness decreases. Although HIV can be
transmitted through contact with blood and some body
fluids, it is NOT transmitted by touching, feeding or
working around persons who carry the disease.
- b. The pathogens which can transmit these diseases
may be present in the blood and other body fluids such
as saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. Pathogens may
also be present in cerebrospinal, synovial, pleural,
peritoneal, pericardial,amniotic and any other fluids
contaminated with blood. Unfixedtissue or organs from
living or dead humans, cell, tissue or organ cultures
and other biological matter from laboratoryexperiments
have also proven to be sources of some pathogens.
- c. These pathogens can enter and infect the human body
through openings in the skin including cuts, nicks,
abrasions, dermatitis or acne. Infection can also
result from punctures or cuts caused by sharp
contaminated objects such as needles, scalpels, broken
glass, exposed ends of dental wires or any
other object that can puncture or cut skin. Infection
can also gain access to the body through mucous
membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth when these areas
are touched with contaminated hands or implements. The
HBV virus is particularly dangerous since it can
survive on dried surfaces at room temperature for at
least one week. This means that a surface can be
dangerously contaminated without any visible signs if
the work areas are not thoroughly cleaned immediately
after being contaminated with infectious material.
- d. The rule provides guidelines but does not offer
protection unless the staff and administration work
faithfully to adhere to and improve policies,
engineering controls and work procedures used when
there is an exposure risk. Know the policies and be
alert to protect yourself and your co-workers.
- e. This manual contains a copy of the rule. The
rule includes definitions of terms, but the print is
small and difficult to read. We have included the
definitions on the next pages in order to make it
easier for you to find and read them if you should have
Section 1 of Table Contents
DEFINITION OF TERMS
- A. The following definitions, taken from the OSHA Rule are
provided for easy reference and apply throughout this plan.
- 1. Bloodborne pathogens
- a. Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in
humanblood and that can infect and cause disease in
persons who are exposed to blood containing these
- 2. Clinical laboratory
- a. A workplace where diagnostic procedures or other
screening procedures are performed on blood or other
potentially infectious materials.
- 3. Contaminated
- a. The presence or the reasonably anticipated
presence ofblood or other potentially infectious
materials on an object or surface.
- 4. Contaminated laundry
- a. Laundry which has been soiled with blood or
other potentially infectious materials or may
contain contaminated sharps.
- 5. Contaminated sharps
- a. Any object contaminated with blood or other
potentially infectious material that is capable of
penetrating the skin.
- 6. Decontamination
- a. The use of physical or chemical means to remove,
inactivate or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a
surface or object to the point at which they are no
longer capable of transmitting infectious particles.
- 7. Engineering controls
- a. Controls that isolate, minimize or remove a
- 8. Exposure incident
- a. A specific exposure to the eye, mouth, other
mucousmembrane, or puncture exposure to blood or other
potentially infectious materials that results from the
performance of an employee's duties.
- 9. Handwashing facilities
- a. A facility providing an adequate supply of
running water, soap and single-use towels.
- 10. Licensed health care professional
- a. A person whose legally permitted scope of
practiceallows him or her to independently perform the
activities required by paragraph (f) Hepatitis B
Vaccination and Post-exposure Follow-up.
- 11. Occupational Exposure
- a. Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous
membrane orpuncture contact with blood or other
potentially infectious materials that may result from
the performance of an employee's duties.
- 12. Personal protective equipment
- a. Specialized clothing or equipment worn by an
individual to protect him or her from a hazard.
- 13. Regulated waste
- a. Any one of the following:
- 1) Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other
potentially infectious materials
- 2) Contaminated items that would release blood or
other potentially infectious materials in a liquid
or semi-liquid state if compressed
- 3) Objects caked with dried blood or other
potentially infectious materials which are
capable of releasing these materials during
- 4) Contaminated sharps
- 5) Pathological and microbiological wastes
containing blood or other potentially infectious
- 14. Source individual
- a. Any individual, living or dead, whose blood or
other potentially infectious materials may be a source
of occupational exposure to the employee.
- 15. Sterilize
- a. The use of a physical or chemical procedure to
destroy all microbial life including highly resistant
- 16. Universal precaution
- a. A method of infection control in which all human
blood and certain body fluids are treated as if known
to be infectious for HIV, HBV and other bloodborne
- 17. Work-practice controls
- a. Controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure
by altering the manner in which a task is performed.
Section 1 of Table Contents
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