St. Olaf College

Confined Space Entry


Policy and Procedures Manual




Table of Contents





Section 1
INTRODUCTION






Section 2
PRE-ENTRY






Section 3
ATTENDANT DUTIES






Section 4
PERMITS/PRACTICES




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Section 1
INTRODUCTION




OVERVIEW



  • A. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines Confined Space as "any space which, by design, has limited openings for entry and exit; unfavorable natural ventilation which could contain or produce dangerous air contaminants, and which is not intended for continuous employee occupancy.

  • B. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1926.21 "Safety training and education" paragraph 5, sub-paragraph ii, defines Confined Space as "any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet deep such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels." OSHA 1926 is the construction industry standard.

  • C. OSHA 1910.146(a) (23), the general industry standard, defines Confined Space Entry as "A permit-required confined space (permit space) means an enclosed space which:
    • 1. Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work.

    • 2. Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit, (some examples are tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins, hoppers, vaults, pits and diked areas);

    • 3. Is not designed for continuous human occupancy, and has one or more of the following characteristics:


      • a. Contains or has a known potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

      • b. Contains a material with the potential for engulfment of the entrant;

      • c. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section;

      • d. Contains any other recognized safety or health hazard."


  • D. The exact number of workers killed and injured each year in confined-space accidents is unknown. The NIOSH criteria document on confined spaces lists a study that reviewed 20,000 accident reports filed over a three-year period. Analysis of those reports showed that 234 deaths and 193 injuries were linked to 276 confined-space incidents. An OSHA report summarizing an in-house review of inspection case files showed that 173 fatalities resulted from 122 confined-space accidents.

  • E. Employees assigned to work in confined spaces are not the only people at risk. A NIOSH study conducted in 1986 suggests that more than half of those killed in confined spaces were rescuers. In some cases, as many as four would-be rescuers were killed in a single accident.

  • F. The practices and procedures which St. Olaf College follows when doing confined space entry are designed to protect you from the hazards of entry into and working in this environment. Never short cut these safe work practices.

  • G. You should know and remember that work-related accidents in confined spaces usually result in serious injury or death.



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PERMIT ENTRY CONFINED SPACE



  • A. Definition:

    • 1. Permit entry confined space means an enclosed space which:

      • a. Is large enough and laid out in such a way that a worker could enter and perform work; and

      • b. Has limited means of entry and exit such as a storage bin, hopper, vault, pit, or diked area; and

      • c. Is not designed for continuous occupancy by the worker, and

      • d. Has one or more of the following characteristics:

        • 1) Contains or may contain a hazardous atmosphere;

        • 2) Contains the potential for engulfment by loose particles;

        • 3) Has an internal layout such that someone entering could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or

        • 4) Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.


NOTE: Even the act of placing your face through the opening of a permit entry confined space is considered an "entry".


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EMPLOYER PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
  • A. Regulations require St. Olaf College to establish a Confined Space Entry program which contains the following elements:

    • 1. Identifying each permit entry confined space and informing workers by sign, placard, training program or other effective means of it's location in order to prevent unauthorized entry.

    • 2. Providing a specific training program for workers who would be entering such spaces before they may be authorized to enter them.

    • 3. Making available all protective clothing and personal protective equipment necessary for safe entry into such places.

    • 4. Assuring the ready availability of rescue and safety related equipment or services, such as lifting or retrieval devices and others, necessary for the entry.

    • 5. To make non-entry rescues possible where entry would be into an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life or health or into an area where there is a risk of engulfment. This means that retrieval lines must be set up at the space. There must be adequate attachment points outside the confined space for tying-off or otherwise securing retrieval lines for all workers entering. If these lines themselves could become a hazard due to entanglement or if they otherwise cannot be used, then an equivalent method for rescue must be provided.

    • 6. Determining and evaluating the source of any atmospheric contamination found at the time of entry. If the severity of this hazard could increase while workers are in this space, then appropriate provision must be made for this.

    • 7. Providing an attendant for each entry where required.

    • 8. Establishing an entry permit system which is covered in the section on ENTRY PERMIT SYSTEM.



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ENTRY PERMIT SYSTEM



  • A. The college must develop, implement and use an entry permit system that includes written procedures for issuance of permits to enter permit entry confined spaces. These procedures must:

    • 1. Determine the permit entry confined spaces and identify them for workers to prevent unauthorized entry.

    • 2. Determine the actual and potential hazards associated with the space at the time of entry

    • 3. Assure that control measures used in the confined space are effective. This is done by appropriate testing.

    • 4. Provide appropriate vehicle and pedestrian guards, barriers or other means to protect the workers entering the confined space and the attendant(s) from local traffic hazards, and to protect non-entering workers from hazards arising from the confined space.

    • 5. Prepare a plan of emergency evacuation in conformance with CFR Section 1910.38(a).

    • 6. Identify by job title those persons who must sign the entry permit and the duties of each, including the person in charge of the entry.

    • 7. Provide for pre-planned emergency rescue.

    • 8. Define the role of the person deemed "competent person", or equivalent title, if such a person is part of your school's permit entry system.

    • 9. Provide an attendant for each entry, where applicable, and specify the duties of that attendant.

    • 10. Assure proper calibration of test and/or monitoring equipment.

    • 11. Assure that workers who participate in entry of a permit entry confined space in any capacity have been properly trained.



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ENTRY PERMIT AND CHECKLIST



  • A. Regulations require that the entry permit shall authorize entry

    • 1. only by authorized workers

    • 2. into a specific permit entry confined space

    • 3. for a specific purpose

    • 4. with entry by a specific shift or work crew for a period not to exceed 24 hours.


  • B. These Regulations would require the following items to be included on each entry permit;

    • 1. The minimum environmental conditions which are acceptable for entry and working in the space.

    • 2. A means for assuring and certifying that all pre-entry requirements have been met.

    • 3. The name or job title of the person authorizing or in charge of the entry.

    • 4. The name of the attendant. If the permit directs that more than one worker will rotate in the attendant position, this may be omitted. Also, this may be omitted if the entry falls under the classification of special permits and practices.

    • 5. The means for assuring that the in-plant rescue team is available. If your location has not formed an in-plant rescue team, then the permit must carry the means for assuring that predesignated outside assistance can be summoned. The College does not maintain an in-house rescue team. Dial 9-911 on any College telephone for the Northfield Rescue Squad.

    • 6. Any known hazards or those which could reasonably be expected to be present in the space.


  • C. The regulations would allow the following requirements to be covered by the permit or as an alternative, they may be covered by a checklist which is then attached to the permit:

    • 1. All means of isolation, cleaning, purging or bringing motion to rest has been done prior to entry to remove or control hazards identified in number 6. above.

    • 2. Describe any additional hazards that the activities of the workers in the space could be reasonably expected to generate. If any special work practices or procedures must be followed, they must be listed here.

    • 3. Any personal protective equipment that is necessary for the entry or rescue of the workers in the confined space, should be necessary.

    • 4. Any testing of the atmosphere in the space which must be done immediately prior to and during the entry period. The person(s) who are responsible for such testing must be listed unless special circumstances allow otherwise.

    • 5. If hot work will be necessary in the space, it must be authorized on the Entry Permit or a separate Hot Work permit must be attached to the entry permit. In this case, the issuance of the Hot Work permit is then noted on the entry permit itself.

    • 6. If the entry will be into an atmosphere which is actually or potentially immediately endangering to life or health, NIOSH approved positive pressure atmosphere supplying breathing apparatus or a positive pressure airline respirator equipped with a minimum of a 5 minute emergency escape bottle must be available at the point of the entry.



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Section 2
PRE-ENTRY




TESTING



  • A. Before entry, it is necessary to test the atmosphere in the confined space for oxygen levels, flammability, and/or any contaminants that have a potential to be present in that confined space. This testing must be done by a qualified person using equipment which has been approved for use in such areas. The testing equipment itself should be checked to make sure it is working properly before using it. Follow the manufacturer's recommended procedures.

  • B. Testing of the confined spaces should be conducted throughout the entire portion of the space that workers will occupy during the entry. This testing shall be done without the use of ventilation systems. Where the entry is vertical into the confined space, it is recommended that remote probes be used to measure the atmosphere at various levels. This is necessary because some gases and vapors are lighter or heavier than air and can accumulate at different levels in the confined space. Test outside the confined space to make sure the surrounding air is not contaminated.

  • C. Atmospheric conditions are considered unacceptable if oxygen levels are less than 19.5% or greater than 22.0%. Regulations define the following unacceptable levels of other hazards monitored:

    • 1. A flammable gas, vapor or mist greater than 10% of its lower flammable limit (LFL). LFL means the minimum concentration of the flammable material which will ignite if an ignition source is present.

    • 2. An airborne combustible dust at a concentration that obscures vision at a distance of five feet or less.

    • 3. An atmospheric concentration of a substance greater than the allowed limit in the Material Safety Data Sheet for that substance.


  • D. If test results conclude that the atmospheric condition of the confined space is unacceptable, entry is prohibited until such conditions are brought into acceptable limits. This may be done by purging, cleaning and/or ventilating the space. Purging refers to the method by which gases, vapors, or other airborne impurities are displaced from a confined space. The confined space may also be made non-flammable, non-explosive or otherwise chemically non-reactive by displacing or diluting the original atmosphere with steam or gas that is non-reactive with respect to that space, a process referred to as "inerting".



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TRAINING REQUIREMENTS



  • A. St. Olaf College is responsible for certain training requirements. These are as follows:

    • 1. GENERAL As an employer, St. Olaf College must ensure that all workers who must enter a permit entry confined space in the course of their work are informed of appropriate procedures and controls for entry into such spaces. These workers must be made aware of the fact that an unauthorized entry could be fatal, and that their senses are unable to detect and evaluate the severity of atmospheric hazards.

    • 2. TRAINING FOR AUTHORIZED ENTRANTS St. Olaf College must ensure that all authorized entrants know the emergency action plan and have received training covering the following subjects prior to entering any permit entry confined space:

      • a. Hazard Recognition: Each worker must understand the nature of the hazard before entering and the need to perform appropriate testing to determine if it is safe to enter.

      • b. Use of Personal Protective Equipment: Each employee must be taught the proper use of all personal protective equipment required for entry or rescue, and the proper use of protective barriers and shields.

      • c. Self Rescue: Each worker must be trained to get out of the confined space as rapidly as possible without help whenever an order to evacuate is given by the attendant, whenever an automatic evacuation alarm is activated, or whenever workers recognize the warning signs of exposure to substances that could be found in the confined space. They must also be made aware of the toxic effects or symptoms of exposure to hazardous materials he could encounter in the confined space. This includes anything that could be absorbed through the skin or which could be carried through the skin by any solvents that are used. They must be trained to relay an alarm to the attendant and to attempt self- rescue immediately upon becoming aware of these effects.

      • d. Special Work Practices or Procedures: Each worker must be trained in any modifications of normal work practices that are necessary for permit entry confined space work.


    • 3. TRAINING FOR PERSONS AUTHORIZING OR IN CHARGE OF ENTRY In addition to other requirements already covered, the person authorizing or in charge of entry shall be trained to recognize the effects of exposure to hazards that could be in the confined space. They must also carry out all duties that the permit assigns to them.

    • 4. TRAINING FOR ATTENDANT Any worker functioning as an attendant at a permit entry confined space must be trained in the school's emergency action plan, the duties of the attendant, and in;

      • a. Proper use of the communications equipment furnished for communicating with authorized workers entering the confined space or for summoning emergency or rescue services.

      • b. Authorized procedures for summoning rescue or other emergency services.

      • c. Recognition or the unusual actions of a worker which could indicate that they could be experiencing a toxic reaction to contaminants that could be present in the space.

      • d. Any training for rescuers, if the attendant will function as a rescuer also.

      • e. Any training for workers who enter the confined space, if the permit specifies that the duty of the attendant will rotate among the workers authorized to enter the confined space.



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ISOLATION



  • A. In certain situations, it may be necessary to control energy sources (Lockout/Tagout) before any workers are permitted to enter the confined space. This may mean controlling energy sources to the confined space as well as inside it. All energy sources which are potentially hazardous to the workers in the space must be secured, relieved, disconnected and/or restrained. Energy sources include:

    • 1. Electrical

    • 2. Mechanical

    • 3. Hydraulic

    • 4. Pneumatic (air)

    • 5. Chemical

    • 6. Thermal

    • 7. Radioactive

    • 8. Gravity


  • B. Methods of accomplishing this include:

    • 1. Disconnecting belt and chain drives and mechanical linkages on shaft-driven equipment.

    • 2. Securing mechanical moving parts within a confined space with latches, chains, chocks, blocks or other devices.

    • C. The objective is to control any situation where the unexpected energization, start-up or release of stored energy would cause injury to the workers in the confined space.

    • D. In certain other situations, it may be necessary to prevent flammable, toxic, irritating or oxygen displacing gases and vapors from entering the confined space. This includes all hazardous material, high pressure, high temperature and other lines that could introduce a hazard to the space. Methods for preventing entry of these materials includes:

      • 1. De-pressurizing and disconnecting contaminant supply lines and providing a blank or blind, often referred to as a "pancake", on them. This is the absolute closure of the pipe, line or duct by fastening a solid plate or "cap" across it which is capable of withstanding the maximum upstream pressure.

      • 2. Isolating a confined space from a line, duct or pipe by locking or tagging two closed in-line valves, and locking or tagging the line between the two closed valves open to the outside atmosphere so that it can continue to drain or bleed.

      • 3. Using two blocking valves with an open vent between the blocking valves.

      • 4. Inserting a blank sized for the proper pressure in piping nearest the confined space.



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DUTIES OF THE PERSON AUTHORIZING OR IN CHARGE OF THE ENTRY



  • A. The person who authorizes or is in charge of the permit entry confined space to comply with the following:

    • 1. Make certain that all pre-entry requirements as outlined on the permit have been completed before any worker is allowed to enter the confined space.

    • 2. Make certain that any required per-entry conditions are present.

    • 3. If an in-plant rescue team is to be used in the event of an emergency, make sure they would be available. St. Olaf College does not maintain an in-plant rescue team. Dial 9-911 on any St. Olaf College telephone for the Northfield Rescue Squad.

    • 4. Make sure that any communication equipment which would be used to summon either the in-plant rescue team or other emergency assistance is operating correctly.

    • 5. Terminate the entry upon becoming aware of a condition or set of conditions whose hazard potential exceeds the limits authorized by the entry permit.


  • B. If the person who would otherwise issue an entry permit is in charge of the entry and present during the entire entry, then a written permit is not required if that person uses a checklist as provided in the section on "Permits". This person may also serve as the attendant at the site.



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SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS DURING A PERMIT ENTRY



  • A. Certain work being performed in a permit entry confined space could cause the atmosphere in the space to change. Examples of this are welding, drilling, or sludge removal. In these situations, air monitoring of the confined space should be conducted on a continuous basis throughout the time of the entry.

  • B. If the workers leave the confined space for any significant period of time, such as for a lunch or other break, the atmosphere of the confined space must be retested before the workers reenter the confined space.



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Section 3
ATTENDANT DUTIES




REGULATIONS



  • A. Regulations dictate the following duties for the person acting as the attendant, the trained individual who observes the workers in the permit entry confined space. They (the attendant) must keep in continuous, though not necessarily constant communication with them. In this way, they could immediately call rescue services if needed. While acting as the attendant at a permit entry confined space, these points must always be followed:

    • 1. Never enter the confined space, even if you see that the workers in the space are in trouble. If you did, there might be no one left at the scene to summon help for the others and yourself.

    • 2. Maintain continuous communication with all workers within the confined space. This may be by voice, radio, telephone, watching them, or any other equally effective means. If it is not possible to maintain communication with a worker because of the actual location in the space, arrangements must be made so that you are continuously aware of that worker's location and condition.

    • 3. Order workers in the confined space to "get out" at the first indication of the following:

      • a. A condition or set of conditions whose hazard potential exceeds the limits authorized by the entry permit

      • b. An unexpected hazard

      • c. A toxic reaction which might be recognized by observing unusual actions in the workers

      • d. A situation outside the confined space which could pose a hazard to the workers inside the space


    • 4. Know the procedure as to how to summon emergency assistance and the means to do so. Call 9-911 on any St. Olaf College telephone to summon the Northfield Rescue Squad.

    • 5. Remain at your post. Do not leave except to save your own life while work continues inside the confined space, unless you are replaced by an equally qualified person. If you must leave and no one is there to replace you, order the workers to leave the confined space.

    • 6. Warn any unauthorized persons not to enter, or tell them to leave if they have entered. Also, alert the workers in the confined space, as well as anyone else (as your school policy requires) that unauthorized workers have entered the confined space.


  • B. OSHA Regulations require specific training for you as an attendant. You would be required to know:

  • 1. The College's emergency action plan.

  • 2. The duties of the attendant position as outlined above.

  • 3. Proper use of any communication equipment used to keep in contact with the workers in the confined space or with rescue services.

  • 4. What early signs and symptoms a worker would exhibit if he were becoming intoxicated by contaminants that could be in the space.

  • 5. The training for a worker authorized to enter a permit entry confined space if the permit calls for rotation of the attendant duties among the workers entering the space.

  • 6. The training for rescue workers if you will function as a rescuer also.



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PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT



  • A. Certain permit entries may require the use of personal protective equipment by workers entering the confined space and/or by rescue teams. What equipment is needed will have been determined by a qualified person prior to the issuance of the permit. If the permit requires personal protective equipment, all employees entering the space must be equipped with it.

  • B. If your are involved in deciding what equipment, if any, is to be required, the following quidelines may be helpful:

    • 1. HEAD PROTECTION Is there any danger from falling ogjects, either from within the confined space or through the entryway? Do obstructions or equipment in the confined space present a bump hazard?

    • 2. EYE AND FACE PROTECTION Will the workers encounter any irritant dusts, vapors, mists, abrasive perticles or flying objects in the confined space? If so, are safety glasses, impact goggles, chemical goggles or face shields the best choice for the conditions within the space ane the work to be performed in it? If the hazard will only be eye irritating, glasses or goggles may be sufficient. However, if the hazard poses a danger to both the face and eyes, such as in the process of scraping scale or cutting rivets, a full coverage face shield is needed. If welding will be performed, protection must meet the requirements for that procedure.

    • 3. HAND PROTECTION Will the workers need protection from sharp edges and rough surfaces? Protection ranging from canvas to metal mesh gloves may be needed. Gloves made of rubber or similar material may be worn to protect against toxic or irritating materials. Will the workers encounter extreme hot or cold? Heat protective gloves or thermal insulating gloves may be necessary. If there is a potential for electrical current flow through the body, rubber gloves may be called for. Other considerations include whether workers will be handling slippery tools or materials.

    • 4. FOOT PROTECTION Will the workers risk injury from falling objects, chemicals, etc.? Will they need additional protection from slippery surfaces, electrical conductivity, or sparks?

    • 5. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Will the workers need protection from temperatures, moisture, chemicals, vapors, flames, static electricity, etc.?

    • 6. RESPIRATOR PROTECTION Follow your school's policy if respiratory protection will be required.

    • 7. HEARING PROTECTION If conditions within the confined space require hearing protection, consider how it will affect communications between those workers and the attendant.



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SAFEGUARDS



  • A. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT

    • 1. In deciding what type of harness/life line should be available for a specific entry, think about:

      • a. The size of the space and opening

      • b. The location of the opening to the space

      • c. Obstacles within the space

      • d. The number of workers entering the space

      • e. The type of retrieval equipment available

      • f. Whether or not a rescue of the workers would be vertical or horizontal


        NOTE: If a vertical rescue would be required from the confined space, and the depth of the space is more than 3 to 4 feet, a mechanical lifting device is needed. This device should have a lifting advantage of at least 4:1


  • B. FALL PROTECTION

  • 1. Barracades or covers should be placed at the entrance to the confined space if a potential exists for workers or objects falling into the confined space. If it is appropriate, workers themselves should wear fall arresting equipment when entering the confined space.


  • C. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

    • 1. If the atmosphere inside the confined space is classified as hazardous (flammable/explosive), then any electrical equipment used in it must meet the requirements of Article 500 of the National Electrical Code. If a potential for electrical shock exists, it may be necessary to use ground fault circuit interrupters, assured grounding systems, double insulated tools, low voltage systems, eyc. to reduce the danger.


  • D. ENTRY AND EXIT

    • 1. Special equipment may be required in order to enable workers to safely enter and exit the confined space. Often this will be a ladder. However, in certain cases, a bosum chair, winch device, or similar equipment may be needed.


  • E. WARNING SIGNS AND SYMBOLS

    • 1. Some confined spaces such as vessels, tanks, and manholes are easily recognizable as such. Others, such as some dikes, excavations, and valve pits are not easily recognized as confined spaces. These types of areas need to have legible signs placed on or near them warning others that a permit is required before entry.


  • F. Where a sign is required, one similar to this could be used:

    DANGER

    CONFINED SPACE

    ENTRY BY PERMIT

    ONLY

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    CONTRACTORS



    • A. If you have contractors perform work for you in a permit entry confined space, you must inform them (or their representatives) of any potential fire, explosion, health or safety hazard of that confined space which are reasonable determinable. You must also inform them of your permit entry confined space program requirements and other applicable safety rules at your facility, as well as those portions of the emergency action plan which are applicable to the contractor's workers.



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    IN-PLANT RESCUE TEAMS



    • A. Regulations require that in-plant rescue teams consist of persons equipped with personal protective equipment, which would be necessary to enter the permit entry confined space, as well as rescue and retrieval equipment for rescue from the space. Each member of the team must know how to use the rescue and retrieval equipment and the correct performance of a rescue. Each member must know how to wear and use any personal protective equipment, including respirators, that might be used during an actual rescue.

    • B. Rescue teams must practice, at least annually, removing dummies, mannequins, or other similar "victims", including real people, through openings which duplicate in size, configuration and accessibility the spaces from which an actual rescue might be required.

    • C. At least one member of each rescue team must hold current certification in basic first-aid and CPR.

    • D. In addition, each member of the team must know the emergency action plan and be trained to understand the nature of the potential hazards in the confined space and the need to perform appropriate testing to determine if it is safe to enter. Each member must himself be trained in methods of self rescue as outlined in the section on "Self Rescue". If any modifications of normal work practices are used in a permit entry confined space, then each member of the team must be made aware of them.

    • E. The College does not maintain an in-house rescue team. Using any St. Olaf College telephone, dial 9-911 for the Northfield Rescue Squad. If the work site is not near a telephone, use a two-way portable radio to have the proper authorities call the Rescue Squad.



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    Section 4
    PERMITS/PRACTICES




    SPECIAL ENTRY PERMITS AND PRACTICES
    • A. Regulations in the following restricted circumstances and conditions, entry permit practices may be altered.

      • 1. An entry permit may be issued and used for the entire duration of a job if:

        • a. Conditions in the space have no known potential for presenting either an atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health or an engulfing condition. An engulfing condition exists in which a worker could be captured be finely divided particles or a liquid.

        • b. Acceptable conditions for entry exists in the space based on inspection and atmospheric testing done at the beginning of each work shift and that periodic testing done during the work shift continues to confirm that conditions remain acceptable for work.

        • c. Only operations, processes and procedures that are specifically authorized by the permit, and which could not increase, or be the source of, a hazard to workers are conducted in the permit entry confined space.

        • d. No process or procedure, such as welding, will be conducted if it is not covered by the original permit. The process or procedure may be conducted if a new permit is issued or a special hot work permit is attached to the original permit.

        • e. All workers are withdrawn immediately from the space and special permits are voided if inspection and atmospheric testing indicate that a non-permitted condition now exists as a result of the special permit activity, or that conditions outside of the space could pose a hazard to workers inside. In these circumstances, after correcting the hazards, a new special permit must be obtained before re-entering the
        confined space.

      • 2. An entry permit of up to one year duration may be issued in operations where workers are required to perform routine repetitive entry into confined spaces which have no known potential for presenting an atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health and no potential for an engulfment condition. In this circumstances:

        • a. Specific entry practices and procedures must be established and followed. All workers involved in such entries must be trained in these practices and procedures.

        • b. The atmosphere must be tested prior to entry using an appropriate direct reading instrument or similar device which quantitatively identifies anticipated contaminants. Using a remote sampling probe, the atmosphere is tested for, in the following order:

          • 1) oxygen concentration

          • 2) combustible gas

          • 3) suspected toxic materials


        • c. If continuous positive ventilation, sufficient to maintain the atmosphere within established permit conditions, or appropriate additional atmospheric monitoring is used, entry by one or more workers may be allowed without an attendant.

        • d. The permit will be revoked whenever any test reveals that conditions in the space have become more hazardous than contemplated under the permit. In this case, entry then becomes acceptable only after a permit is issued according to the provisions in the section called "Permits".


      • 3. Diked storage areas may be entered without using an attendant and without providing ventilation or performing atmospheric tests prior to entry to perform routine operations if:

        • a. There is no reason to believe there is or may have been any escape of flammable, toxic or corrosive material in the diked area in sufficient quantity to create an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life or health.

        • b. All established linebreaking procedures are followed if linebreaking is to be done in the diked area.


      • 4. Underground and below-ground permit entry confined spaces may be entered by an annual or a job duration permit without an attendant present at the site where no risk of engulfment exists and where the atmosphere cannot become immediately dangerous to life or health. However, this can done only if:

        • a. A mechanically powered ventilator is used continuously during entry.

        • b. A combination of appropriate atmospheric testing and mechanically powered ventilation is used; or without the mechanically powered ventilation if appropriate continuous atmospheric monitoring or frequent atmospheric testing assures that permit conditions are maintained.


      • 5. Routine or repetitive entries into permit entry spaces are permitted without an attendant in spaces which have no known potential for an atmosphere which is immediately dangerous to life or health or an engulfment situation, and in which all known hazards are positively controlled. Such entry can be made by a permit valid for up to a one year period, provided that:

        • a. Immediately prior to entry, it is verified that no hazards exist.

        • b. The worker takes no materials into the space that could cause a hazard.

        • c. The worker will not perform any work that could cause a hazard in the space.

        • d. Adherence to the above conditions is assured by established work practices, the use of a checklist, or both.



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    CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PROCEDURES



    • A. Definitions

      • 1. Confined Space

        • a. A special configuration that could result in any of the following:

          • 1) Atmospheric Condition - A condition in which a dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment may exist or develop.

          • 2) Entry/Exit Access - A condition where the emergency removal of a suddenly disabled person is difficult due to the location or size of the access opening.

          • 3) Engulfment Condition - A condition where the risk of engulfment exists or could develop.


      • 2. Confined Space Entry

        • a. Any action resulting in any part of the worker's face breaking the plane of any opening of the confined space, and includes any ensuing work activities inside the confined space.


      • 3. Dangerous Air Contamination

        • a. An atmosphere presenting a threat of death, acute injury, illness, or disablement due to the presence of flammable, explosive, toxic or otherwise injurious or incapacitating substances.

          • 1) Dangerous air contamination due to flammability of a gas or vapor is defined as an atmosphere containing the gas or vapor at a concentration greater than 10 percent of its lower explosive limit.

          • 2) Dangerous air contamination due to a combustible particle is defined as a concentration greater than 10% of the minimum explosive concentration of the particle.

          • 3) Dangerous air contamination due to a toxic, corrosive, or asphyxiant substance listed in Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, part 1910, subpart 21, is defined as a concentration above the listed numerical value of the permissible exposure limit (PEL). In addition, an atmospheric concentration above the numerical limit listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet prepared for a hazardous substance in conformance with Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.1200 (g/(2) (vi).

          • 4) Dangerous air contamination that presents an acute illness hazard represents an atmospheric concentration immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). "Immediate severe health effect" means that an acute clinical sign of a serious, exposure-related reaction is manifested within 72 hours after exposure.


      • 4. Engulfment

        • a. The surrounding and effective capture of a person by finely divided particulate matter or a liquid.


      • 5. Oxygen Deficiency

        • a. An atmosphere containing oxygen at a concentration of less than 19.5 percent by volume.


      • 6. Oxygen Enrichment

        • a. An atmosphere containing oxygen at a concentration greater than 23 percent by volume.


      • 7. Class IA Confined Space

        • a. A confined space where no risk of engulfment can exist and where an atmosphere with dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, oxygen enrichment cannot develop and where all known sources of hazard are positively controlled.


      • 8. Class IB Confined Space

        • a. A confined space where no risk of engulfment can exist and where an atmosphere with dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment are unlikely to develop.


      • 9. Class II Confined Space

        • a. A confined space where an atmosphere free of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment has been verified.


      • 10. Class III Confined Space

        • a. A confined space where an atmosphere free of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment cannot be verified.


    • B. Operating Procedures and Worker Training

      • 1. Implementation

        • a. The College shall implement the provisions of this part before any worker is allowed to enter a confined space.


      • 2. Entry Permit

        • a. A written permit form must be completed before allowing a worker to enter a confined space. The permit must contain the following for each permit entry space.

          • 1) Date

          • 2) Location.

          • 3) Time of Issue.

          • 4) Time of Expiration.

          • 5) Names of workers assigned to enter confined space.

          • 6) Atmospheric testing required to be done immediately before and during the entry period.

          • 7) Personal protective equipment required, including respiratory protection, clothing, or harness required for entry and rescue.

          • 8) Description of any additional hazards that may be reasonably expected to be generated by the entrant's activities in the space.

          • 9) Identification of all special work practices or procedures to be followed.

          • 10) Specification of all means of isolation, cleaning, purging, or inerting to be done before entry to remove or control those hazards, or certification that these procedures have been done if a hazardous air contamination or oxygen deficiency condition exists.


      • 3. Duration and Retention of Permit

        • a. The mazimum duration for which a permit may be issued is one shift. Each written permit for confined space entry shall be retained for a minimum of one year


      • 4. Call-in Procedure

        • a. Just prior to entering a confined space, workers must call the Physical Plant Office by two-way radio (unless a telephone is next to the entrance of the confined space) and provide the necessary information that will then be entered in the Confined Space Entry Log Book.

        • b. Immediately after completing their assigned tasks and exiting the Confined Space, workers must, once again, contact the Physical Plant Office to inform the secretary that they are out of the Confined Space.

        • c. If, for any reason, it is nesessary to enter a confined space after regular business hours (Monday - Friday, 8:00am - 5:00pm), contact boiler room personnel instead of Physical Plant secretary prior to entrance and immediately after exiting.


    • C. PRE-ENTRY PROCEDURES

      • 1. Application

        • a. The provisions for this part shall be implemented before entry into a confined space is permitted.


      • 2. Disconnection of Lines

        • a. Lines that may convey flammable, explosive, toxic, or otherwise injurious or incapacitating substances into the space shall be disconnected, blinded, locked out or blocked off by other positive means to prevent the development of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment within the space. The disconnection or blind shall be so located or done in such a manner that inadvertent reconnection of the line or removal of the blind is effectively prevented.


      • 3. Calibration of testing and Monitoring Equipment

        • a. Air testing/monitoring equipment shall be maintained and calibrated according to manufacturers' instructions. This equipment shall be periodically calibrated with an appropriate test gas to assure proper operation. Records of such calibration and field tests shall be maintained for a period of one year.


      • 4. Air Tests

        • a. The air in confined spaces shall be tested with an appropriate device or method to determine whether dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment exists before entry is made. While occupied, additional continuous or periodic monitoring for dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency or oxygen enrichment shall be done. A written record of the testing results shall be made and kept at the work site for the duration of the work. Affected workers shall be afforded the opportunity to review and record the testing results.


      • 5. Injurious Corrosive Substances

      • a. Workers in confined spaces that have last contained injurious or corrosive substances to the eyes or body shall be provided with, and shall be required to wear appropriate personal protective clothing or devices in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.132. In addition, an eyewash and safety shower as required by Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.151 shall be provided within the work area outside the confined space for immediate emergency use.


    • 6. Ventilation

      • a. Where the exestence of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment is demonstrated by tests performed under subpart 3.4, existing ventilation shall be augmented by appropriate means if practical and feasible. When additional ventilation provided in accordance with this subpart has removed dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment as demonstrated by additional testing conducted and recorded under subpart 3.4, entry into and work within the space may proceed.


    • 7. Ignition Sources

      • a. No sources of ignition may be introduced into the space until implementation of appropriate provisions of this section has ensured that dangerous air contamination, due to flammable or expolsive sugstances, does not exist.


    • 8. Oxygen-Consuming Equipment

      • a. Whenever oxygen-consuming equipment is to be used, measures shall be taken to ensure adequate combustion air and exhaust gas venting.


    • 9. Oxygen-Enrichment Condition or Use of Oxygen-Enrichment Equipment

      • a. Whenever oxygen-enrichment is possible due to conditions within the space or oxygen-enrichment equipment is to be used, measures shall be taken to ensure that the oxygen level does not exceed 23 percent in the confined space. If tests indicate the oxygen level to be greater than 22 percent, hot work is prohibited until ventilating techniques have reduced the oxygen level to less than 22 percent.


    • 10. Workers who will enter confined spaces and standby persons shall be trained in operating and rescue procedures, and on hazards which may be encountered. Such training shall be conducted before confined space entry and annually thereafter.

    • 11. Workers who will perform atmospheric monitoring in confined spaces shall be trained on the use of such equipment according to the manufacturer' instructions prior to the confined space entry and then on an annual basis thereafter.


  • D. Entry Into and Work Within Confined Spaces

    • 1. Class IA and IB entry into confined spaces shall meet the following requirements:

      • a. Completion of Confined Space Entry Permit

      • b. All areas of the confined space are continuously and effectively ventilated, such ventilation shall provide positive ventilation of clean air at a rate of at least 200 cubic feet per minute per occupant, or in confined spaces larger than 2,000 cubic feet, 6 air changes of the confined space volume per hour.

      • c. Where there is no effective ventilation, appropriate atmosphere monitoring using an appropriate direct reading instrument (or other device(s) capable of quantitatively identifying anticapated contaminants) with a remote sampling problem, testing for the following conditions and in the following order: oxygen, concentration, combustible gas, and suspected toxic material, if any, shall be done before entry. While occupied, additional continuous monitoring shall be done during the entry period to assure that a potentially dangerous atmosphere does not develop in the confined space.

      • d. The permit may be revoked whenever any tests performed during confined space show deviation from acceptable conditions to a hazardous condition. In these circumstances, entry may be made only by an entry procedure as ouylined in D.2. and D.3.


    • 2. Class II confined space entry shall meet the following requirements:

      • a. Completion of air monitoring tests.

      • b. Completion of Confined Space Entry Permit.

      • c. At least one person shall stand by on the outside of the confined space ready to give assistance in case of emergency.

      • d. Visual, voice, or signal live communication shall be maintained between all individuals in the confined space and the standby person.

      • e. An approved safety belt or harness with an attached line shall be used where practical and feasible. The free end of the line shall be secured outside the entry opening. The line shall be at least 2,000 pound test.

      • f. The standby person shall not enter the confined space until another qualified attendant replaces him/her. Entry shall only occur after proper tests have been performed to show that a dangerous air contaminant, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment does not exist or the standby person is protected as prescribed in items 3.c. and 3.d. and sub-item 4.3.4.1.


    • 3. Class III confined space entry shall meet the following requirements:

      • a. Tanks, vessels, or other confined spaces with side and top openings shall be entered from side openings where practicable. For the purpose of this part, side openings are those within 42 inches of the bottom.

      • b. Appropriate, approved respiratory equipment in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.134 shall be provided and worn.

      • c. An approved safety belt or harness with an attached line must be used. The free end of the line shall be secured outside the entry opening. The line shall be at least 2,000 pound test.

      • d. At least one person shall stand by on the outside of the confined space ready to give assistance in case of emergency.

        • 1) the standby person shall have appropriate, approved respiratory protective equipment, including an independent source of air that conforms with the Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.134(d) and is available for immediate use.

        • 2) a standby person protected as prescribed by items 3.c. and 3.d. may enter the confined space, but only in case of emergency and only after donning the required personal protective equipment and alerting the Emergency Brigade of their intention to enter the confined space.

        • 3) visual, voice or signal live communications shall be maintained between all individuals in the confined space and the standby person.


      • e. When entry must be made through a top opening, the following requirements also apply:

        • 1) the safety harness shall be of the type that suspends in an upright position.

        • 2) an approved hoisting device or other effective means shall be provided for lifting workers out of the space.


      • f. Work involving the use of flame, arc, spark, or other source of ignition is prohibited within a confined space (or any adjacent space having common walls, floor or ceiling with the confined space) that contains, or is likely to develop, dangerous air contamination due to flammable or explosive substances.

      • g. Wherever gases such as nitrogen are used to provide an inert atmosphere for preventing the ignition of flammable gases or vapors, no flame, arc, spark or other sources of ignition may be permitted unless the oxygen concentration is less than 20 percent of the concentration that will support combustion.

        • 1) testing of the oxygen content shall be conducted with sufficient frequency to ensure conformance with this requirement.

        • 2) a written record of the results of such testing shall be made and kept at the work site for the duration of the work.


      • h. Only approved lighting and electrical equipment may be used in confined spaces subject to dangerous air contamination by flammable or explosive substances.


    • 4. Precautions for Emergencies Involving Working in Confined Spaces

      • a. At least one person trained in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) shall be immediately available whenever the use of respiratory protective equipment is required. Standards for CPR training shall follow the principals of the American Heart Association or the Red Cross.



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