St. Olaf College

Confined Space Entry


Policy and Procedures Manual





Section 4
PERMITS/PRACTICES








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SPECIAL ENTRY PERMITS AND PRACTICES
  • A. Regulations in the following restricted circumstances and conditions, entry permit practices may be altered.

    • 1. An entry permit may be issued and used for the entire duration of a job if:

      • a. Conditions in the space have no known potential for presenting either an atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health or an engulfing condition. An engulfing condition exists in which a worker could be captured be finely divided particles or a liquid.

      • b. Acceptable conditions for entry exists in the space based on inspection and atmospheric testing done at the beginning of each work shift and that periodic testing done during the work shift continues to confirm that conditions remain acceptable for work.

      • c. Only operations, processes and procedures that are specifically authorized by the permit, and which could not increase, or be the source of, a hazard to workers are conducted in the permit entry confined space.

      • d. No process or procedure, such as welding, will be conducted if it is not covered by the original permit. The process or procedure may be conducted if a new permit is issued or a special hot work permit is attached to the original permit.

      • e. All workers are withdrawn immediately from the space and special permits are voided if inspection and atmospheric testing indicate that a non-permitted condition now exists as a result of the special permit activity, or that conditions outside of the space could pose a hazard to workers inside. In these circumstances, after correcting the hazards, a new special permit must be obtained before re-entering the
      confined space.

    • 2. An entry permit of up to one year duration may be issued in operations where workers are required to perform routine repetitive entry into confined spaces which have no known potential for presenting an atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health and no potential for an engulfment condition. In this circumstances:

      • a. Specific entry practices and procedures must be established and followed. All workers involved in such entries must be trained in these practices and procedures.

      • b. The atmosphere must be tested prior to entry using an appropriate direct reading instrument or similar device which quantitatively identifies anticipated contaminants. Using a remote sampling probe, the atmosphere is tested for, in the following order:

        • 1) oxygen concentration

        • 2) combustible gas

        • 3) suspected toxic materials


      • c. If continuous positive ventilation, sufficient to maintain the atmosphere within established permit conditions, or appropriate additional atmospheric monitoring is used, entry by one or more workers may be allowed without an attendant.

      • d. The permit will be revoked whenever any test reveals that conditions in the space have become more hazardous than contemplated under the permit. In this case, entry then becomes acceptable only after a permit is issued according to the provisions in the section called "Permits".


    • 3. Diked storage areas may be entered without using an attendant and without providing ventilation or performing atmospheric tests prior to entry to perform routine operations if:

      • a. There is no reason to believe there is or may have been any escape of flammable, toxic or corrosive material in the diked area in sufficient quantity to create an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life or health.

      • b. All established linebreaking procedures are followed if linebreaking is to be done in the diked area.


    • 4. Underground and below-ground permit entry confined spaces may be entered by an annual or a job duration permit without an attendant present at the site where no risk of engulfment exists and where the atmosphere cannot become immediately dangerous to life or health. However, this can done only if:

      • a. A mechanically powered ventilator is used continuously during entry.

      • b. A combination of appropriate atmospheric testing and mechanically powered ventilation is used; or without the mechanically powered ventilation if appropriate continuous atmospheric monitoring or frequent atmospheric testing assures that permit conditions are maintained.


    • 5. Routine or repetitive entries into permit entry spaces are permitted without an attendant in spaces which have no known potential for an atmosphere which is immediately dangerous to life or health or an engulfment situation, and in which all known hazards are positively controlled. Such entry can be made by a permit valid for up to a one year period, provided that:

      • a. Immediately prior to entry, it is verified that no hazards exist.

      • b. The worker takes no materials into the space that could cause a hazard.

      • c. The worker will not perform any work that could cause a hazard in the space.

      • d. Adherence to the above conditions is assured by established work practices, the use of a checklist, or both.



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CONFINED SPACE ENTRY PROCEDURES



  • A. Definitions

    • 1. Confined Space

      • a. A special configuration that could result in any of the following:

        • 1) Atmospheric Condition - A condition in which a dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment may exist or develop.

        • 2) Entry/Exit Access - A condition where the emergency removal of a suddenly disabled person is difficult due to the location or size of the access opening.

        • 3) Engulfment Condition - A condition where the risk of engulfment exists or could develop.


    • 2. Confined Space Entry

      • a. Any action resulting in any part of the worker's face breaking the plane of any opening of the confined space, and includes any ensuing work activities inside the confined space.


    • 3. Dangerous Air Contamination

      • a. An atmosphere presenting a threat of death, acute injury, illness, or disablement due to the presence of flammable, explosive, toxic or otherwise injurious or incapacitating substances.

        • 1) Dangerous air contamination due to flammability of a gas or vapor is defined as an atmosphere containing the gas or vapor at a concentration greater than 10 percent of its lower explosive limit.

        • 2) Dangerous air contamination due to a combustible particle is defined as a concentration greater than 10% of the minimum explosive concentration of the particle.

        • 3) Dangerous air contamination due to a toxic, corrosive, or asphyxiant substance listed in Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, part 1910, subpart 21, is defined as a concentration above the listed numerical value of the permissible exposure limit (PEL). In addition, an atmospheric concentration above the numerical limit listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet prepared for a hazardous substance in conformance with Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.1200 (g/(2) (vi).

        • 4) Dangerous air contamination that presents an acute illness hazard represents an atmospheric concentration immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). "Immediate severe health effect" means that an acute clinical sign of a serious, exposure-related reaction is manifested within 72 hours after exposure.


    • 4. Engulfment

      • a. The surrounding and effective capture of a person by finely divided particulate matter or a liquid.


    • 5. Oxygen Deficiency

      • a. An atmosphere containing oxygen at a concentration of less than 19.5 percent by volume.


    • 6. Oxygen Enrichment

      • a. An atmosphere containing oxygen at a concentration greater than 23 percent by volume.


    • 7. Class IA Confined Space

      • a. A confined space where no risk of engulfment can exist and where an atmosphere with dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, oxygen enrichment cannot develop and where all known sources of hazard are positively controlled.


    • 8. Class IB Confined Space

      • a. A confined space where no risk of engulfment can exist and where an atmosphere with dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment are unlikely to develop.


    • 9. Class II Confined Space

      • a. A confined space where an atmosphere free of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment has been verified.


    • 10. Class III Confined Space

      • a. A confined space where an atmosphere free of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment cannot be verified.


  • B. Operating Procedures and Worker Training

    • 1. Implementation

      • a. The College shall implement the provisions of this part before any worker is allowed to enter a confined space.


    • 2. Entry Permit

      • a. A written permit form must be completed before allowing a worker to enter a confined space. The permit must contain the following for each permit entry space.

        • 1) Date

        • 2) Location.

        • 3) Time of Issue.

        • 4) Time of Expiration.

        • 5) Names of workers assigned to enter confined space.

        • 6) Atmospheric testing required to be done immediately before and during the entry period.

        • 7) Personal protective equipment required, including respiratory protection, clothing, or harness required for entry and rescue.

        • 8) Description of any additional hazards that may be reasonably expected to be generated by the entrant's activities in the space.

        • 9) Identification of all special work practices or procedures to be followed.

        • 10) Specification of all means of isolation, cleaning, purging, or inerting to be done before entry to remove or control those hazards, or certification that these procedures have been done if a hazardous air contamination or oxygen deficiency condition exists.


    • 3. Duration and Retention of Permit

      • a. The mazimum duration for which a permit may be issued is one shift. Each written permit for confined space entry shall be retained for a minimum of one year


    • 4. Call-in Procedure

      • a. Just prior to entering a confined space, workers must call the Physical Plant Office by two-way radio (unless a telephone is next to the entrance of the confined space) and provide the necessary information that will then be entered in the Confined Space Entry Log Book.

      • b. Immediately after completing their assigned tasks and exiting the Confined Space, workers must, once again, contact the Physical Plant Office to inform the secretary that they are out of the Confined Space.

      • c. If, for any reason, it is nesessary to enter a confined space after regular business hours (Monday - Friday, 8:00am - 5:00pm), contact boiler room personnel instead of Physical Plant secretary prior to entrance and immediately after exiting.


  • C. PRE-ENTRY PROCEDURES

    • 1. Application

      • a. The provisions for this part shall be implemented before entry into a confined space is permitted.


    • 2. Disconnection of Lines

      • a. Lines that may convey flammable, explosive, toxic, or otherwise injurious or incapacitating substances into the space shall be disconnected, blinded, locked out or blocked off by other positive means to prevent the development of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment within the space. The disconnection or blind shall be so located or done in such a manner that inadvertent reconnection of the line or removal of the blind is effectively prevented.


    • 3. Calibration of testing and Monitoring Equipment

      • a. Air testing/monitoring equipment shall be maintained and calibrated according to manufacturers' instructions. This equipment shall be periodically calibrated with an appropriate test gas to assure proper operation. Records of such calibration and field tests shall be maintained for a period of one year.


    • 4. Air Tests

      • a. The air in confined spaces shall be tested with an appropriate device or method to determine whether dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment exists before entry is made. While occupied, additional continuous or periodic monitoring for dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency or oxygen enrichment shall be done. A written record of the testing results shall be made and kept at the work site for the duration of the work. Affected workers shall be afforded the opportunity to review and record the testing results.


    • 5. Injurious Corrosive Substances

    • a. Workers in confined spaces that have last contained injurious or corrosive substances to the eyes or body shall be provided with, and shall be required to wear appropriate personal protective clothing or devices in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.132. In addition, an eyewash and safety shower as required by Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.151 shall be provided within the work area outside the confined space for immediate emergency use.


  • 6. Ventilation

    • a. Where the exestence of dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment is demonstrated by tests performed under subpart 3.4, existing ventilation shall be augmented by appropriate means if practical and feasible. When additional ventilation provided in accordance with this subpart has removed dangerous air contamination, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment as demonstrated by additional testing conducted and recorded under subpart 3.4, entry into and work within the space may proceed.


  • 7. Ignition Sources

    • a. No sources of ignition may be introduced into the space until implementation of appropriate provisions of this section has ensured that dangerous air contamination, due to flammable or expolsive sugstances, does not exist.


  • 8. Oxygen-Consuming Equipment

    • a. Whenever oxygen-consuming equipment is to be used, measures shall be taken to ensure adequate combustion air and exhaust gas venting.


  • 9. Oxygen-Enrichment Condition or Use of Oxygen-Enrichment Equipment

    • a. Whenever oxygen-enrichment is possible due to conditions within the space or oxygen-enrichment equipment is to be used, measures shall be taken to ensure that the oxygen level does not exceed 23 percent in the confined space. If tests indicate the oxygen level to be greater than 22 percent, hot work is prohibited until ventilating techniques have reduced the oxygen level to less than 22 percent.


  • 10. Workers who will enter confined spaces and standby persons shall be trained in operating and rescue procedures, and on hazards which may be encountered. Such training shall be conducted before confined space entry and annually thereafter.

  • 11. Workers who will perform atmospheric monitoring in confined spaces shall be trained on the use of such equipment according to the manufacturer' instructions prior to the confined space entry and then on an annual basis thereafter.


  • D. Entry Into and Work Within Confined Spaces

    • 1. Class IA and IB entry into confined spaces shall meet the following requirements:

      • a. Completion of Confined Space Entry Permit

      • b. All areas of the confined space are continuously and effectively ventilated, such ventilation shall provide positive ventilation of clean air at a rate of at least 200 cubic feet per minute per occupant, or in confined spaces larger than 2,000 cubic feet, 6 air changes of the confined space volume per hour.

      • c. Where there is no effective ventilation, appropriate atmosphere monitoring using an appropriate direct reading instrument (or other device(s) capable of quantitatively identifying anticapated contaminants) with a remote sampling problem, testing for the following conditions and in the following order: oxygen, concentration, combustible gas, and suspected toxic material, if any, shall be done before entry. While occupied, additional continuous monitoring shall be done during the entry period to assure that a potentially dangerous atmosphere does not develop in the confined space.

      • d. The permit may be revoked whenever any tests performed during confined space show deviation from acceptable conditions to a hazardous condition. In these circumstances, entry may be made only by an entry procedure as ouylined in D.2. and D.3.


    • 2. Class II confined space entry shall meet the following requirements:

      • a. Completion of air monitoring tests.

      • b. Completion of Confined Space Entry Permit.

      • c. At least one person shall stand by on the outside of the confined space ready to give assistance in case of emergency.

      • d. Visual, voice, or signal live communication shall be maintained between all individuals in the confined space and the standby person.

      • e. An approved safety belt or harness with an attached line shall be used where practical and feasible. The free end of the line shall be secured outside the entry opening. The line shall be at least 2,000 pound test.

      • f. The standby person shall not enter the confined space until another qualified attendant replaces him/her. Entry shall only occur after proper tests have been performed to show that a dangerous air contaminant, oxygen deficiency, or oxygen enrichment does not exist or the standby person is protected as prescribed in items 3.c. and 3.d. and sub-item 4.3.4.1.


    • 3. Class III confined space entry shall meet the following requirements:

      • a. Tanks, vessels, or other confined spaces with side and top openings shall be entered from side openings where practicable. For the purpose of this part, side openings are those within 42 inches of the bottom.

      • b. Appropriate, approved respiratory equipment in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.134 shall be provided and worn.

      • c. An approved safety belt or harness with an attached line must be used. The free end of the line shall be secured outside the entry opening. The line shall be at least 2,000 pound test.

      • d. At least one person shall stand by on the outside of the confined space ready to give assistance in case of emergency.

        • 1) the standby person shall have appropriate, approved respiratory protective equipment, including an independent source of air that conforms with the Code of Federal Regulations, title 29, section 1910.134(d) and is available for immediate use.

        • 2) a standby person protected as prescribed by items 3.c. and 3.d. may enter the confined space, but only in case of emergency and only after donning the required personal protective equipment and alerting the Emergency Brigade of their intention to enter the confined space.

        • 3) visual, voice or signal live communications shall be maintained between all individuals in the confined space and the standby person.


      • e. When entry must be made through a top opening, the following requirements also apply:

        • 1) the safety harness shall be of the type that suspends in an upright position.

        • 2) an approved hoisting device or other effective means shall be provided for lifting workers out of the space.


      • f. Work involving the use of flame, arc, spark, or other source of ignition is prohibited within a confined space (or any adjacent space having common walls, floor or ceiling with the confined space) that contains, or is likely to develop, dangerous air contamination due to flammable or explosive substances.

      • g. Wherever gases such as nitrogen are used to provide an inert atmosphere for preventing the ignition of flammable gases or vapors, no flame, arc, spark or other sources of ignition may be permitted unless the oxygen concentration is less than 20 percent of the concentration that will support combustion.

        • 1) testing of the oxygen content shall be conducted with sufficient frequency to ensure conformance with this requirement.

        • 2) a written record of the results of such testing shall be made and kept at the work site for the duration of the work.


      • h. Only approved lighting and electrical equipment may be used in confined spaces subject to dangerous air contamination by flammable or explosive substances.


    • 4. Precautions for Emergencies Involving Working in Confined Spaces

      • a. At least one person trained in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) shall be immediately available whenever the use of respiratory protective equipment is required. Standards for CPR training shall follow the principals of the American Heart Association or the Red Cross.



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