History

http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/history/

Chair, 2013-14: Judy Kutulas, 20th-century American history, American women's history, media history

Faculty, 2013-14: J. Laurel Carrington, medieval, Renaissance and Reformation; Gary De Krey, Reformation and early modern Europe, Tudor and Stuart England, modern Britain; Jeane DeLaney, Latin American history and nationalism, Argentina and Brazil, modern Cuba; Robert Entenmann, East Asian history, Asian studies; Michael Fitzgerald, African-American history, Civil War and Reconstruction, U.S. South; Eric Fure-Slocum, American urban, labor, and reform history; Steven Hahn, early America, Native American history (on leave fall semester); Timothy Howe, ancient Greece and Rome; Abdulai Iddrisu, African history, Islam, gender; Anna Kuxhausen, Russia, Europe, gender, childhood, medicine; Todd Nichol, Nordic and Nordic-American studies; Dolores Peters, France, modern Europe, history of medicine; Marci Sortor, medieval European economic history, medieval studies

History explores the many facets of the human condition from the past to the present. History invites those who study it to develop an appreciation for the variety of human experiences. Demonstrating how the past shapes the present, the study of history also encourages an understanding of different world cultures, societies, and outlooks on their own terms. Students learn to analyze and to think critically about a broad range of issues and experiences. They also learn how to develop reasoned arguments and explanations from historical evidence.

Among St. Olaf departments, the History Department is distinctive in the variety of courses it offers for the college’s interdisciplinary programs. These courses are described here, and they are also listed in such program descriptions as American studies, Asian studies, environmental studies, and women’s studies. In addition, history courses fulfill several different general education requirements, according to subject matter. The department is a major provider of HWC, MCG, MCD, and WRI courses. Some history courses count toward ALS-L, HBS, and ORC.

The habits of critical inquiry and the deep appreciation for the varieties of human experience across time and space that are developed in studying history provide the basis for a wide range of professional and personal vocations.  History majors are prepared for graduate and professional programs in history, law, museum studies, public health, and various cultural or area studies, and for developing careers in such diverse fields as education, business, ministry, government, and journalism.

OVERVIEW OF THE MAJOR

St. Olaf’s history offerings are structured to help students achieve different learning goals at different levels. In level I seminars, students approach history as a way of learning, through the critical reading of primary sources on specific historical topics. In level I foundational surveys, they explore the broad historical development of the world’s major societies and cultures. In other level II surveys, students examine more specialized national, area, and topical developments. In level II major seminars, students develop their skills of analysis, interpretation, argumentation, and expression. Finally, level III seminars challenge students to recognize historical problems and to formulate their own questions about major historical issues, and engage ongoing debates among historians.

History courses at level I do not have prerequisites. Level I seminars are open only to first-year students; level I foundational surveys are open to all students. History courses at level II generally do not have prerequisites either, since many of them count for general education credit. The major seminars at level II are especially designed for history majors, although other students may enroll as space permits. Level III courses generally require significant prior preparation; students with little or no background in the relevant area or period should consult with the instructor before registration.

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR THE MAJOR

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR

History majors are required to take nine courses, including one level II major seminar and three courses at level III. No specific level I coursework is required for the major, but students may count up to three level I courses (but no more than two seminars) toward the major. Students must take at least one course in each of three general areas, i.e., Europe, United States, and the non-Western world (Africa, Asia, Latin America). This area requirement should be fulfilled in level I or level II courses. At least two courses in the major must deal with the pre-modern period; see the departmental website or the History Department chair for the approved list of pre-modern courses. Other courses may meet this requirement if approved by the department chair.

DISTINCTION

Senior majors who seek a significant intellectual experience and who demonstrate high achievement in historical research and writing may apply for departmental distinction. Candidates must satisfy minimum grade point average requirements (3.30 overall, 3.50 in the major), prepare a paper under the direction of an advisor in the department and submit their work for faculty review. Students declare their interest to the chair of the Distinction Committee by November 15 of their senior year. The formal review begins in mid-March.

SPECIAL PROGRAMS

The History Department supports several other programs:

  1. The social studies education major (see SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION) is appropriate for those considering a career in teaching history. Students in this major are able to double-major in history with careful planning. Interested students should consult with a faculty advisor in the Education Department.
  2. The Foreign Languages Across the Curriculum (FLAC) program offers students opportunities to integrate their foreign-language skills with the study of history. Students in specially designated history classes can use their Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, German, Russian, or Chinese so that nothing is lost to them in translation!
  3. History courses taken in St. Olaf off-campus programs can often be counted toward the major. Students who wish to count off-campus courses toward the major should seek approval from the department chair before beginning their programs. Some restrictions apply.
  4. Historical internships with academic content may also be accepted for major credit.
  5. The interdisciplinary historical perspectives concentration enables students to create a coherent group of five courses (from within and without the History Department) about a particular era, theme, or region of the world. See HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES for additional information. Only students through the class of 2016 are eligible.

recommendations for graduate study

Students planning on graduate study in history should take advantage of the flexibility of the history major to develop depth of knowledge in a particular field, topic, or approach in order to position themselves for more focused advanced study.   Students might also consider developing a research project beyond the requirements of a level III seminar by completing History 394: Internship, 397: History Research Workshop or 398: Independent Research, participating in the Undergraduate Research Program, or completing the Distinction process.   Most graduate programs in history (including American and British history) require reading and/or speaking proficiency in one or two relevant languages beyond English.   Participation in the optional FLAC sections attached to a number of history courses (see above) is an excellent way to demonstrate both language proficiency and the capacity to apply that proficiency to the analysis of historical evidence.   Study abroad can also enhance preparation for graduate school.  In recent years, History majors have been accepted for advanced historical study at Duke University, the Universities of Chicago, Maryland, Minnesota, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Toronto, and Virginia; William and Mary, and Yale University.   

COURSES

LEVEL I: HISTORY SEMINARS

Courses numbered 101-189 are seminars open only to first-year students. Each focuses on a different topic, but all explore the fundamentals of historical thinking by emphasizing analysis of primary sources and critical assessment of historical interpretations. Seminars are offered each semester and during the Interim.

101 Ancient Warfare

This seminar examines the social and political role of warfare in ancient Greek and Roman history. Students investigate the concepts of war and peace by considering the role of the soldier within society, details of tactics and logistics, and the impact of warfare on both combatants and non-combatants alike. The seminar uses primary sources to examine these themes. Offered most years. Counts towards ancient studies major.

111 Viking and Medieval Scandinavia

A survey of Nordic history from the time of the Viking expansion to the period of the Kalmar Union. Topics include Viking expansion and conquest; Nordic cultural and religious life; the coming of Christianity; the sagas and other literary sources; later medieval developments. Offered most years. Counts towards medieval studies major.

115 Courtly Love in the Middle Ages

"Courtly love" evokes images of knights and ladies vowing eternal devotion in elegant language. The development of courtly love in the early 12th century, and its consequences for people then and now, provide this seminar's focus. Using literature and historical scholarship, students explore the ideal of courtly love, its social function, its role in literature, the arts, and music, its relationship to Christianity and to the feudal system. Emphasis is on intersections between literature and intellectual and social history: How well do literary sources reflect actual social practice? How does literary practice shape experience to create works of art? Offered periodically. Counts towards medieval studies major.

117 Elizabethan England

Why has the era of Elizabeth I remained so fascinating? Why did England emerge by 1603 as the major Protestant state of Europe with visions of overseas empire, a strong national culture, and a flourishing literature? Students examine relations between the monarchy and parliament, warfare with Spain, religious disagreements, Scotland and Mary Stuart, and the social order. Readings include historical writing, primary sources, and literature, with attention to several film treatments. Offered occasionally during Interim.

121 The Making of Modern Russia

This course explores the origins of the modern Russian empire. Using primary sources including chronicles, folktales, legal codes, letters, and religious icons, students consider Russia's development from a loose collection of princedoms into a powerful, multi-ethnic empire spanning 11 time zones. Topics include the impact of geography and climate, the Orthodox religion, Mongol rule, gender roles, the rise of autocracy, and social rebellion. Offered most years. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration.

122 Europe and the Great War

Focusing on social and cultural history, students use literature, film, and propaganda to examine total war and its impact on gender, state, and society. How did the 19th century prepare Europeans for war? How did different experiences in the trenches and on the home front contribute to gender anxieties? Was the war an agent of progress or midwife to the brutality of the 20th century? Offered most years. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration.


126 Conquest and Colonization

This seminar examines one of history's most dramatic episodes: the Spanish conquest and colonization of what is now Latin America. Through reading and discussion, students examine such topics as European and indigenous perceptions of the Conquest, the role of missionaries, the imperial enterprise, the response of native peoples to the imposition of Christianity, indigenous efforts to resist Spanish domination, the ecological/biological consequences of 1492, and subsequent debates over the morality of the conquest. Offered periodically. Counts toward Latin American studies major and concentration.

History 140: Pirates of the Caribbean

This course explores the rise and fall of English piracy in the Caribbean, from its origin during the reign of Elizabeth I to the emergence of the so-called "Golden age" of piracy in the early 18th century. Students investigate the ways in which piracy advanced and then later threatened the imperial goals of the English state, and examine the enduring appeal of pirates in the popular imagination.

History 151: Slavery in African History

This course introduces students to the historical forces leading to, and scholarly debates about, slavery in African History. Students examine the nature and development of domestic slavery to the nineteenth century as well as the slave trade systems across the Saharan Desert and the Atlantic Ocean. Students "do history" using primary sources to retrieve the African voices and agency in discussions of the slave trade and debating themes such as ethnicity, kinship, state formation, and colonialism. Counts towards Africa and the Americas concentration.

165 Slavery in the Americas

This seminar, using only eyewitness accounts, examines African slavery in the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America. Typical readings include the narrative of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Jacobs' autobiography, and the writings of slave-holders like Mary Chesnut. Topics include the slave trade, the origins of African-American culture, women and slavery, and the origins of the Civil War. The course concludes with an examination the process of emancipation. Offered periodically. Counts towards race and ethnic studies and American studies majors and race and ethnic studies and Africa and the Americas concentrations.

169 The Western Home: Stories of Norwegian America

Norwegian folklore tells of a place east of the moon and west of the sun where dreams are realized. For hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Norway this fabled place was America. They called it, as does St. Olaf's own college hymn, Fram, Fram, "a home in the west." This course explores the stories of Norwegian America through its literature and other forms of popular writing created from the 19th through the 21st centuries. It considers, among other forms, novels, shorts stories, drama, children's literature, memoirs, letters, diaries, travel accounts, biographies, journalism, popular history, and film. Offered alternate years.

181 Civil Rights Revolution

Students examine the overthrow of American segregation through several decades of agitation for civil rights. This seminar focuses primarily on the South, though students also discuss northern race relations. Primary accounts from the era constitute the assigned readings. Among the topics covered are the segregated South, Martin Luther King and his critics, the Black Power movement, and the rise of white backlash politics. Offered periodically. Counts towards race and ethnic studies and American studies majors and race and ethnic studies and Africa and the Americas concentrations.

182 America Since World War II

This seminar examines American society since 1945. The main focus is social history. Topics include the impact of the Cold War, migration to the suburbs, post-industrial society, the culture of the 1950s, civil rights, the Vietnam War, the student movement, the sexual revolution, and Watergate. Sources include novels, essays, magazine stories, films, and documentaries. Offered most years. Counts towards American studies major and women's and gender studies major and concentration.

188 Topical Seminar

Selected topics in historical studies, depending on instructor.

189 Topical Seminar

Sample Topic: Women in African Colonial History

This seminar uses case studies to examine the social, economic, and historical roles of women in colonial Africa. Students use a range of primary sources, including films, to reconstruct African women's lives and explore themes such as slavery, work, domesticity, marriage and kinship, social change, motherhood, and resistance and nationalism.

FOUNDATIONAL SURVEYS

History 190-191, 194-195, 198-199 are offered as foundational surveys in European, global, and American history. These courses are open to all students seeking broad historical introductions to Western and non-Western societies. Foundational surveys provide both extensive historical coverage and opportunities for integrative learning. They carry general education credit, as appropriate, in Historical Studies in Western Culture and in Multicultural Studies. They are particularly appropriate for majors seeking background in each world area.

190 Europe from the Ancients to the Renaissance

This course surveys Western history and culture from its origins in the Ancient Near East to the Italian Renaissance. Topics include the ancient world, the beginnings of Christianity, the emergence and disintegration of Rome as a unifying power, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. Through original texts and historical studies, students will explore relationships among religions, states, and societies and views of natural environments, family life, and gender roles. Offered most years. Counts towards ancient studies and medieval studies majors.

191 Europe from the Reformation to Modern Times

This course surveys European history and culture since the Reformation. Topics include the impact of Protestantism, the development of nation-states, the Enlightenment, revolutionary ideas and experiences, the Napoleonic era, imperialism, mass political movements, and global warfare. Through original texts, historical studies, and literature, students explore relations among religions, states and societies and understandings of liberty and reason, natural environments, family life, and gender roles. Offered most years. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration

194 Global Histories from Ancient Times to 1500

Students use original texts, historical studies, and literature to examine, comparatively and chronologically, the evolution of selected cultures and societies before 1500. They explore topics such as political, cultural, and economic exchange, religious practices, human interaction with the environment, forms of political authority, family life, and gender roles. Offered most years.

195 Global Histories from 1500 to the Present

This course takes a comparative and chronological approach to studying the diverse cultures of the modern world. Through original texts, historical studies, and literary sources, students examine such themes as the rise of American imperialism and its impact on indigenous peoples of the Americas, Asia, and Africa; the emergence of the nation-state and new ideologies; the spread of American influence in the world; human interaction with the environment; challenges to religion and traditional life-styles; and innovation in family and gender structures. Offered most years.

198 American History to 1865

This course examines the development of American culture and society from the Columbian encounter through the Civil War. Topics include the interaction of Europeans, Africans, and indigenous peoples in early America; the social development of the British colonies; the evolution of American slavery; the Revolution and the Constitution; industrialization, expansion, and reform in the 19th century; and the Civil War. Offered most years. Counts towards American studies major.

199 American History Since 1865

As they study the development of American institutions and society from the Civil War to the present, students examine economic, social, and political themes with a special emphasis on changing interpretations. Major topics are Reconstruction, urbanization, populism, progressivism, depression, New Deal, foreign relations, civil rights, social reform, equality for women, and other recent trends. Offered each year. Counts towards American studies and race and ethnic studies majors and race and ethnic studies concentration.

LEVEL II: PERIOD AND NATIONAL HISTORIES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

201 Major Seminar: Ancient History

This course explores topics in ancient history, designed to emphasize active skills of critical reading, textual and contextual analysis, historiographical argument, and historical writing. Recent topics have included "Ancient Greece" and "Ancient Near East." Primarily for history majors; others by permission of instructor. Offered most years. Counts towards ancient studies major.

202 Mediterranean Archaeology Field School

This course introduces students to Mediterranean archaeological field techniques and methods such as survey, site identification, artifact processing and analysis, and site excavation. During a five-week summer session, students: visit museums in order to recognize artifacts and contextualize them in regional chronologies; practice and refine excavation and survey techniques; and critically examine how archaeological knowledge about the ancient Mediterranean is constructed and expressed.

203 Ancient: Greece

This course is a history of Western civilization's primary cultures, Ancient Greece from the Bronze Age through the "Golden Age" of classical Greece and the empire of Alexander the Great. Offered most years. Counts towards ancient studies major.

204 Ancient: Rome

This course is a survey of Mediterranean civilization from the early history of Italy through the Roman Republic and Empire. Foreign Language Across the Curriculum course available in Latin. Offered most years. Counts towards ancient studies major.

205 Ancient: Near East

This course is a history of Western civilization's earliest cultures, the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Hebraic Kingdoms, and the great Empires of Assyria, Babylon, and Persia. Offered occasionally.

PERIOD, NATIONAL AND THEMATIC HISTORIES OF EUROPE

210 Major Seminar: European History

This course explores topics in European history, designed to emphasize active skills of critical reading, textual and contextual analysis, historiographical argument, and historical writing. Recent topics have included "Restoration Britain" and "France in World War II." Primarily for history majors; others by permission of instructor. Offered most years.

211 The Early Middle Ages

This course examines European history during the period from 300 to 1000. Topics include the culture of late antiquity, the foundation of Christian institutions, the age of migrations, the Byzantine Empire and its relationship with the West, the emergence of Islam, the Carolingian revival, the manorial system, and the development of feudalism, with attention given to women's roles in medieval society throughout the course. Offered alternate years. Counts towards medieval studies major.

212 The High and Late Middle Ages

This course covers European history in the period from 1000 to 1500. Topics include the medieval papacy, the Crusades and reconquest of Spain, towns and commercial life, the medieval monarchy, scholasticism in the setting of the universities, late medieval spirituality, and the crises of plague and warfare in the late Middle Ages, with attention given to women's roles in medieval society throughout the course. Prerequisite: History 190 recommended. Offered alternate years. Counts towards medieval studies major.

217 Age of the Renaissance

Students examine intellectual, political, social, and spiritual currents, 1300 to 1550, particularly in the city of Florence, but also in broader Italian and European Renaissance contexts. Topics include humanism, the political life of the northern Italian city-states, changes in spirituality and in the life of the church, the status of women, and the development of political theory. Readings include Petrarch, Machiavelli, and Erasmus. Offered most years.

218 Reformation Europe

Students study Protestant and Catholic religious movements, Luther and other Reformers, political and social institutions, the Protestant family, intellectual traditions, and popular culture and beliefs in this interdisciplinary approach to Reformation Europe. Students also investigate the rise of nation-states, theological debates, the wars of religion, science and learning, printing and communication, and capitalism. Offered most years.

219 Reformation England

Students survey politics, religion, and society from the Reformation through the era of the Glorious Revolution. Using both contemporary authors and historical writings, students examine the reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, the introduction of Protestantism, the Anglican Church and its puritan critics, the conflict between the Stuart kings and parliament, the revolutions of the 17th century, and the establishment of liberty for conscience. Offered periodically.

220 Modern Britain

How did Britain emerge as the world's first "super-power"? Students examine British history from the Revolution of 1688 through the era of World War II. Topics include the aristocracy, the impact of the Industrial and French Revolutions, liberalism and capitalism, Victorian culture, the working class and political reform, the women's movement, the imperial achievement, the issue of Ireland, and the challenge of the world wars. Offered periodically.

222 Modern Scandinavia

This course offers a survey of modern Scandinavian history from the period of the Protestant Reformation to the present with special attention to recent developments. Foreign Language Across the Curriculum course available in Norwegian. Offered most years.

224 Modern Germany

This course provides a survey of the history of Germany with emphasis on the period from 1700 to the present. Through primary sources, literature, and historical accounts, students examine Germany's development from a collection of independent states to a great power, focusing on the social, cultural, and political impact of national unification, rapid industrialization, world wars, and European union. Offered alternate years. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and German studies and women's and gender studies concentrations.

226 Modern France

This course surveys the history of France since 1815 and considers, across the arc of five republics, two monarchies, two Napoleonic empires, and one authoritarian regime, what it means to be French. Organizing themes include the revolutionary tradition and the notion of republicanism, industrialization's impact on society, the transformation of France in response to two catastrophic world wars, and contemporary challenges such as austerity and immigration. Foreign Language Across the Curriculum course available in French. Offered most years.

227 French Revolution and Napoleon.

Students examine seminal events, institutions, and doctrines of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, with special attention to the 18th-century background to the Revolution, its impact on Europe in the 19th century, and its legacies in the modern world. Using primary and secondary sources, students explore the drama of the period and consider the variety of historical approaches to, and interpretations of, the Revolution. Offered periodically.

230 Imperial Russia

Russia's modern history from Peter the Great to the revolution of 1917 centers on the tsarist autocracy and popular movements to limit its power. Students assess Russia's economy, culture, and religion against the background of the country's westernization. Foreign Language Across the Curriculum course available in Russian. Offered most years.

231 20th-Century Russia

This course begins with the Communist revolution of 1917 and traces the growth of the Soviet Union under Lenin, Stalin, and their successors. Students analyze the "crisis" of the Soviet system in order to explain why the last of the European empires collapsed in 1991. Foreign Language Across the Curriculum course available in Russian. Offered most years. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration.

237 Women in Medieval Europe

Students explore the experiences of women in both religious and secular life from the period of the late Roman Empire through the 15th century. Topics include women's roles in the early church, changes in the status of women from the late Roman Empire through the Carolingian period, women's monasticism, marriage and the family in the feudal system, courtly love, and late medieval spirituality. Offered alternate years during Interim. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration.

238 Women in Early Modern Europe

This course introduces students to a selection of topics in women's history during a transitional period in the West and helps them develop a sense of the methodologies of women's history as a field. Topics include the status of women in Renaissance Italy, female rulers during the early modern period, women in the context of humanism, changing conditions for working women, women and the arts, witchcraft, and the impact of the Reformation. Offered alternate years during Interim. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration.

239 Women and Gender in Modern Europe

Students analyze women's experience and notions of gender in Europe since 1700. Themes include the definition of domestic ideology from the Enlightenment through industrialization to the Victorian period, gendering citizenship in the nation-state, the impact of science and technology on women's lives and bodies, the development of feminism(s), and women and gender in socialist and fascist regimes. Offered periodically. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration.


296 Medical Vocation in Historical Context

This course surveys the history of the medical professions in Europe and the U.S. from 1700 to the present, with attention to legacies from earlier periods. The unifying theme is "vocation," understood as a lived experience shaped by the values and expectations of practitioner, profession, and society, and manifested in various ways. Students examine scientific, cultural, institutional, ethical, and personal factors influencing the development of physicians and their practice in specific historical contexts. Offered periodically. Counts toward biomedical studies concentration (for students through class of 2016).

AREA COURSES ON AFRICA, ASIA, AND LATIN AMERICA

240 Major Seminar: Non-Western History

This course explores topics in non-Western history, designed to emphasize active skills of critical reading, textual and contextual analysis, historiographical argument, and historical writing. recent topics have included "American Empire: A Cultural History of US-Latin America Relations" and "Imperialism and Nationalism in Southeast Asia." Primarily for history majors; others by permission of instructor. Offered periodically.

242 Modern Latin America

An overview of the evolution of Latin American societies since 1750, this course examines the consequences of independence, 19th-century economic imperialism, and 20th-century transitions to more urbanized, industrialized ways of life. Students examine major Latin American nations and compare their revolutionary and counter-revolutionary trajectories toward the establishment of authoritarian states. Foreign Language Across the Curriculum course available in Spanish. Offered most years. Counts toward Latin American studies major and concentration.

243 20th-Century Cuba

This course examines the history of 20th-century Cuba, especially the 1959 revolution and its aftermath. Students study the transformation of Cuban political culture, the obstacles to economic and agrarian reform, education, the role of women, human rights, U.S. policies toward Cuba, and the future of Cuba after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The role of charismatic leadership in Latin America and the possibilities for revolutionary changes in the Americas are also examined. Offered periodically in Interim. Counts toward Latin American studies major and concentration.

244 Collective Memory in Revolutionary Cuba

How do Cubans view their past, and how does this shape their understanding of the present? This course focuses on the 1959 Revolution and historical memory. Students explore through visits to museums, memorials, and monuments how the government has sought to influence the ways Cubans remember the revolution and the later turn toward socialism. Students also study present-day Cuba through visits to health clinics, cooperatives, and schools, as well as lectures from local experts. Offered in alternate years during Interim. Counts toward Latin American studies major and concentration.

245 Environmental History of Latin America

This course examines the environmental history of Latin America from ancient times to the present. Through readings and discussion, students explore topics such as pre-conquest indigenous agriculture, the environmental consequences of European colonization, Latin American understandings of nature, the Green Revolution, deforestation, questions of international environmental justice, and the growing links between the region's indigenous peoples and international environmental organizations. Offered annually. Counts toward environmental studies major (all tracks) and concentration and Latin America studies major and concentration.

Asian Studies/History 250: Chinese Civilization

This course studies Chinese civilization from its beginnings to the end of the 19th century, providing an overview of traditional Chinese thought, culture, institutions, and society. Students examine the development of philosophy and religion, achievements in art and literature, and social and economic change. This course also considers foreign conquest dynasties, Chinese expansion into Inner Asia, and China's relations with the West. Offered most years.

Asian Studies/History 251: Modern China

This class examines reform and revolution at the end of Qing dynasty; the creation and collapse of the first Republic; warlordism, the New Culture Movement, social and cultural change, and the rise of Chinese nationalism; Japanese invasion, civil war, and the Communist victory; the People’s Republic since 1949; economic and social change, conflict with the Soviet Union, the Cultural Revolution, Maoism and Mao’s legacy, and China’s recent economic and political transformation. Applied Foreign Language Component available in Chinese for students at the third-year level in the language. Offered most years.

Asian Studies/History 252: Japanese Civilization

A study of Japan from the origins of the Yamato state culture to the emergence of modern Japan, this course provides an overview of traditional Japanese thought, values, and culture. This course examines social, economic and political change, intellectual and religious history, and the development of Japanese arts and literature, as well as Japan's relations with China, Korea, and the West. Offered most years.

Asian Studies/History 253: Modern Japan

This survey of modern Japan from about 1800 to the present examines the political transformation of the Meiji Restoration, the industrial revolution and social and cultural change, the rise and fall of party government, militarism and Japanese expansionism in World War II, the American occupation, and postwar social, political, economic, and cultural developments. Offered most years.

256 Slavery in West Africa: Ghana

Students explore the history and culture of Ghana and examine how people recall slavery and the implications of a constructed concept of slavery. Through primary sources and visits to historic sites, students examine how Africans view slavery; why descendants of slavers and the enslaved rarely discuss slavery; how to transform slave artifacts into storehouses of memory, silences, and fragmentations in history; and how descendants of slaves respond to the burden of such knowledge. Offered during Interim. Counts toward Africa and the Americas and ARMS concentrations.

Asian Studies/History 262: National Identity and Ethnicity in China (Abroad)

This course examines ethnicity and the development of national identity in China through the evolution of the Qing empire into a modern nation state, the development of Chinese national identity in modern times, and the relationship between majority culture and minority ethnicities. Students examine the Han, Manchus, Tibetan, and Hmong/Miao as case studies, including comparisons with Hmong in the United States. Offered every two or three years during Interim.

291 Introduction to African History

The course explores how people view Africa and the contested discourse on the meaning of "Africa" with special emphasis on sub-Sarahan Africa. Through lectures, discussion, and analysis of primary sources, students examine Africa's past in terms of material and social change; how the ordinary and the privileged made their world; economic and religious revolutions; responses to colonial encroachment and rule; and independence. No prior study of Africa necessary. Offered annually. Counts toward Africa and Americans concentration.

292 Muslim Societies in Sub-Saharan Africa

This seminar introduces students to the nature and development of Muslim societies in sub- Saharan Africa, from the earliest times to the present. Students also explore questions of authenticity and "historical truth" as they examine current debates on themes such as patterns of Islamization, "African Islam," and Islam in Africa. Other themes include the invention of Muslim identities, expansion of Sufism, women in Islam, Islamic education, Islam and colonialism as well as revivalism in Islam. Offered annually.

PERIOD AND TOPICAL COURSES IN AMERICaN HISTORY

270 Major Seminar: American History

This course explores topics in American history, designed to emphasize active skills of critical reading, textual and contextual analysis, historiographical argument, and historical writing. Recent topics have included "Franklin's America," "Women and Slavery," "American Family in Historical Perspective," and "Work in America." Primarily for history majors; others by permission of instructor. Offered most years.

272 Women in America

This course surveys women's experience in American life from the colonial period to the present. Students examine the changing economic, social, and legal status of women, society's attitudes toward women, and the growth of feminism. Offered most years. Counts toward American studies major, women's and gender studies major and concentration, and family studies concentration.

275 Environmental History

By examining the interaction of people and environment on the North American continent from the 15th century to the present, this course shows how history "takes place" in ecological contexts that change over time. Students compare Native American and Euro-American religious beliefs, social values, economic aspirations, and technological developments and examine their consequences for the flora, fauna, and peoples of the continent. Counts toward American studies major and environmental studies major (all tracks) and concentration.

277 African-American History

In this study of African-Americans in U. S. society from African origins to the present, students explore the African heritage, the experience of slavery, segregation, and the rise of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s. The course pays particular attention to the issue of black nationalism as a force in American life. Offered most years. Counts toward American studies and race and ethnic studies majors and race and ethnic studies and Africa and the Americas concentrations.

282 Topics in Native American History

Spanning at least twelve thousand years and involving more than five hundred indigenous nations the history of Native America is complex and diverse. This course focuses on significant themes, time periods, or geographical regions, with emphasis on the Native peoples within the modern-day continental United States. Examples include "The Trail of Tears," "The West Before Lewis and Clark," and "Pontiac's America." Offered periodically. Counts toward American studies and race and ethnic studies majors and race and ethnic studies concentration.

288 America in the Civil War and Reconstruction Era

In studying the impact of the Civil War era on American society and politics, students focus on slavery, emancipation, and race relations. They also address the impact of industrialization on northern society, encompassing immigration and nativism, the westward movement, and the dispossession of Native Americans. The course situates the dramatic political and military events of the era in the wider evolution of American life. Offered most years. Counts toward American studies and race and ethnic studies majors and race and ethnic studies and Africa and the Americas concentrations.

290 Reel America: U.S. History in Film

Students examine the limitations and the enormous potential of film in depicting and interpreting past events in U.S. history. They analyze films using a variety of theoretical models and explore the ways feature films and documentaries have explored themes like race, conquest, war, and politics in American history. Writing assignments enable students to demonstrate their analytical skills. Counts toward American studies major and media and film studies concentrations.

GENERAL

294 Internship

298 Independent Study

299 Topics in History

This course offers selected surveys in historical studies. Topics depend on instructor. Recent topics have included "Women in Early America," "U.S.-Latin American Relations," and "Doing Public History." May be repeated if topics are different. Offered periodically.

LEVEL III: SEMINARS

Please note that Level III seminars presume significant prior knowledge of the subject. Previous experience with the material is required.

European History

302 Greek Civilization

Students study the emergence and development of Greek civilization from the early Bronze Age through the Hellenistic period, concentrating on such topics as the Homeric Age, Greek colonization of the Mediterranean basin, Athens' evolution from democratic city-state to imperialist power, the Golden Age of Athens, social and intellectual trends and Alexander. Prerequisite: History 203 or permission of instructor. May be repeated if topics are different. Offered periodically. Counts toward ancient studies major.

303 Roman Civilization

This seminar covers the emergence and development of Roman civilization from the founding of Rome to the end of the Western Empire. Students explore such topics as the Greek and Etruscan legacy, evolution from republic to autocracy, the Augustan Age, Pax Romana, social and intellectual trends, the triumph of Christianity and Rome's final transformation. Prerequisite: History 190 or 204 or permission of instructor. May be repeated if topics are different. Offered periodically. Counts toward ancient studies major.

310 Seminar: Medieval Europe

This seminar covers various topics in the history of medieval Europe, depending upon the instructor. The most recently offered topic: "Medieval Italy, 1050-1350." May be repeated if topics are different. Offered periodically. Counts toward medieval studies major.

315 Seminar: Early Modern Europe

This seminar covers various topics in early modern European history, depending upon the instructor. The most recently offered topic: "Reformation and Revolution in England." May be repeated if topics are different. Offered periodically.

320 Seminar: Modern Europe

This seminar covers various topics in modern European history, depending upon the instructor. Recent topics have included "Gender and the Enlightenment," "The Holocaust and History," "Race, Gender, and Medicine," and "Nation and Empire in Russian History." May be repeated if topics are different. Prerequisites for certain offerings. Offered most years.

Non-Western History

340 Latin America Seminar

This seminar covers varying topics in Latin American history, depending upon the instructor. May be repeated if topics are different. Offered periodically. Counts toward Latin American studies major and concentration.

Asian Studies/History 345: East Asia Seminar

This seminar covers varying topics in East Asian history. Recent topics have included "World War II in East Asia and the Pacific" and "Nationalism and Communism in Southeast Asia." May be repeated if topics are different. Prerequisite: History or Asian Studies major or permission of the instructor. Offered periodically.

American History

370 American Seminar

This seminar covers varying topics in American history, depending upon the instructor. Recent topics have included "Lincoln and his America," "The American Revolution," and "19th-Century American Political Culture." May be repeated if topics are different. Offered most years.

375 Problems of Contemporary America

This course examines American life, politics, and foreign policy from the Cold War to the present. Using a variety of readings, students explore some of the contradictions of modernity and the transformation of America into a post-industrial society. Prerequisite: History 199 recommended. Offered periodically. Counts toward American studies major.

General

394 Internship

396 Directed Undergraduate Research: "Topic Description"

This course provides a comprehensive research opportunity, including an introduction to relevant background material, technical instruction, identification of a meaningful project, and data collection. The topic is determined by the faculty member in charge of the course and may relate to his/her research interests. Prerequisite: determined by individual instructor. Offered based on department decision. May be offered as a 1.00 credit course or .50 credit course.

397 History Research Workshop

Rather than focus on a region or period of time, we will look at how historians from many different fields explore and understand "everyday life." What do historians have to say about eating, work, rumors, fear, night, noise, bingo, and more? What sources do they use for this research? What significance do we find in these histories of everyday life? Much of this study is defined by changes in social and cultural history, with an emphasis on local and micro-histories. Students will produce a substantial research paper, based on primary sources and focused on a theme or problem related to histories of everyday life. Seniors are welcome. Juniors especially are encouraged to consider this course, especially those considering academic internships, participation in the summer undergraduate research program, or distinction.

398 Independent Research