Biology 252 Plant Morphology and Systematics

Fall, 2005

Student free-hand section of Helianthus stem, stained with Toluidine Blue-O.

Link to Course Syllabus

Links to Botanical Sites of Interest

Plant Origins, Evolution, and Diversification

  • Early Land Plants WWW site.
  • Mazon Creek Fossil Flora
  • Progymnosperms
  • The Rhynie Chert Site.
  • Fossil Plants of West Virginia


    Botany and Plant Science Journals and Botanical Literature

  • On-line version of the American Journal of Botany.
  • Index to American Botanical Literature.


    Homepages for Other Botany Courses and Plant Education

  • Archive for the Plant-Ed Network .
  • Botany on Line .

    Plant Model Organisms

  • Arabidopsis (a fast plant) click here or go to TAIR Site
  • Ceratopteris the fast fern.
  • Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center.
  • Tomato Genetics Resource Center.

    Conservation, Preservation and Other

  • Minnesota Native Plant Society.
  • Pictures and information about California Wildflowers.

    Images of Plant Diversity, Morphology and Anatomy


    Selected Images of Plant Anatomy and Morphology

    Plant Cells and Tissues

  • Example of Vascular Bundle . Image courtesy Virtual Foliage Homepage of UW-Madison.
  • Examples of schlerenchyma fibers and sclereids. Images courtesy Virtual Foliage Homepage of UW-Madison.
  • Example of collenchyma cells . Image courtesy Virtual Foliage Homepage of UW-Madison.
  • Example of epidermal and guard cells .Image courtesy Virtual Foliage Homepage of UW-Madison.

    Stems and Leaves

  • Cross section of Young Helianthus Stem 100x magnification
  • Vascular Bundle in young Helianthus (x.s., 400x)
  • Cross Section through Older Helianthis Stem (100x).
  • Labelled cross-section of Syringa Leaf.


  • Origin of Rannunculus lateral root from pericycle.
  • Quiescent Center in Wheat Root Tip

    Reproductive Structures of Non-seed Plants

  • Moss Archegonia produced by gametophyte.
  • Moss Antheridia produced by gametophyte.
  • Moss Capsule (sporangium) of sporophyte.
  • Fern archegonia produced by gametophyte (prothallus).
  • Fern antheridia produced by gametophyte (prothallus).
  • Fern sorus (collection of sporangia) produced on leaves of sporophyte.
  • Equisetum stobilus produced by sporophyte.
  • Lycopodium stobilus produced by sporophyte.

    Reproductive Structures of Plants with Seeds

  • Young male pine cone.
  • Germinating pine pollen.
  • Young female pine cone.
  • Pine micropyle with pollen.
  • Pine gametophyte with archegonia.
  • Lily flower Transverse section (note presence of all 4 whorls).
  • Lily Anther with four pollen sacs (microsporangia).
  • Close-up of lily pollen sac (microsporangium) showing tapetum and microspore mother cell.
  • Microspore mother cell first meiotic division.
  • Lily Pollen.
  • Lily Megaspore mother cell in young ovule (note lack of integuments).
  • Young lily embryo sac.
  • Older lily embryo sac with 8 nuclei (+ a sperm nucleus?).
  • Young Capsella ovules containing embryos.
  • Capsella embryo (globular stage).
  • Older Capsella embryo with cotyledons.

    ( Charles' Homepage )

    ( St. Olaf College Homepage )